Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics

A national research center for biomedical fluorescence spectroscopy at the University of California, Irvine

Journal Articles

Refereed journal articles, authored or coauthored by members of the Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics (LFD) from 1987 to present. Access to PDF documents is password protected due to copyright restrictions. Reprints can be requested from the authors.


  1. Yao Z, Brennan CK, Scipioni L, Chen H, Ng KK, Tedeschi G, Parag-Sharma K, Amelio AL, Gratton E, Digman MA, Prescher JA.
    Multiplexed bioluminescence microscopy via phasor analysis.
    Nat Methods. 2022; Online ahead of print.
  2. Tentori P, Signore G, Camposeo A, Carretta A, Ferri G, Pingue P, Luin S, Pozzi D, Gratton E, Beltram F, Caracciolo G, Cardarelli F.
    Fluorescence lifetime microscopy unveils the supramolecular organization of liposomal Doxorubicin.
    Nanoscale. 2022; Online ahead of print.
  3. Solano A, Lou J, Scipioni L, Gratton E, Hinde E.
    Radial pair correlation of molecular brightness fluctuations maps protein diffusion as a function of oligomeric state within live cell nuclear architecture.
    Biophys J. 2022; 121(11): 2152-2167.
  4. Fazel M, Jazani S, Scipioni L, Vallmitjana A, Gratton E, Digman MA, Pressé S.
    High resolution fluorescence lifetime maps from minimal photon counts.
    ACS Photonics. 2022; 2(3): 1015-1025.
  5. Vorontsova I, Vallmitjana A, Torrado B, Schilling TF, Hall JE, Gratton E, Malacrida L.
    In vivo macromolecular crowding is differentially modulated by aquaporin 0 in zebrafish lens: Insights from a nanoenvironment sensor and spectral imaging.
    Sci Adv. 2022; 8(7). PMCID: PMC8849302
  6. Torrado B, Malacrida L, Ranjit S.
    Linear combination properties of the phasor space in fluorescence imaging.
    Sensors. 2022; 22(3): 999. PMCID: PMC8840623
  7. Vu T, Vallmitjana A, Gu J, La K, Xu Q, Flores J, Zimak J, Shiu J, Hosohama L, Wu J, Douglas C, Waterman ML, Ganesan A, Hedde PN, Gratton E, Zhao W.
    Spatial transcriptomics using combinatorial fluorescence spectral and lifetime encoding, imaging and analysis.
    Nat Commun. 2022; 13(1), 169. PMCID: PMC8748653


  1. Sallaberry I, Luszczak A, Philipp N, Navarro GSC, Gabriel MV, Gratton E, Gamarnik AV, Estrada LC.
    In vivo pair correlation microscopy reveals dengue virus capsid protein nucleocytoplasmic bidirectional movement in mammalian infected cells.
    Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1), 24415. PMCID: PMC8709865
  2. Ma D, Hernandez GA, Lefebvre AEYT, Alshetaiwi H, Blake K, Dave KR, Rauf M, Williams JW, Davis RT, Evans KT, Longworth A, Masoud MYG, Lee R, Edwards RA, Digman MA, Kessenbrock K, Lawson DA.
    Patient-derived xenograft culture-transplant system for investigation of human breast cancer metastasis.
    Commun Biol. 2021; 4(1): 1268. PMCID: PMC8571269
  3. Nicolai E, Pieri M, Gratton E, Motolese G, Bernardini S.
    Bacterial infection diagnosis and antibiotic prescription in 3 h as an answer to antibiotic resistance: the case of urinary tract infections.
    Antibiotics (Basel). 2021; 10(10): 1168. PMCID: PMC8532666
  4. Shi B, Li W, Song Y, Wang Z, Ju R, Ulman A, Hu J, Palomba F, Zhao Y, Le JP, Jarrard W, Dimoff D, Digman MA, Gratton E, Zang C, Jiang H.
    UTX condensation underlies its tumour-suppressive activity.
    Nature. 2021; 597(7878): 726-731. PMCID: PMC9008583
  5. Lefebvre AEYT, Ma D, Kessenbrock K, Lawson DA, Digman MA.
    Automated segmentation and tracking of mitochondria in live-cell time-lapse images.
    Nat Methods. 2021; 18(9): 1091-1102.
  6. Hedde PN, Cinco R, Malacrida L, Kamaid A, Gratton E.
    Phasor-based hyperspectral snapshot microscopy allows fast imaging of live, three-dimensional tissues for biomedical applications.
    Commun Biol. 2021; 4(1): 721. PMCID: PMC8195998
  7. Torrado B, Dvornikov A, Gratton E.
    Method of transmission filters to measure emission spectra in strongly scattering media.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2021; 12(7): 3760-3774. PMCID: PMC8367243
  8. Tedeschi G, Scipioni L, Papanikolaou M, Abbott GW, Digman MA.
    Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy enables quantification of potassium channel subunit dynamics and stoichiometry.
    Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1), 10719. PMCID: PMC8140153
  9. Vallmitjana A, Torrado B, Gratton E.
    Phasor-based image segmentation: machine learning clustering techniques.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2021; 12(6): 410-3422. PMCID: PMC8221971
  10. Malacrida L, Ranjit S, Jameson DM, Gratton E.
    The phasor plot: a universal circle to advance fluorescence lifetime analysis and interpretation.
    Annu Rev Biophys. 2021; 50: 575-593.
  11. Scipioni L, Rossetta A, Tedeschi G, Gratton E.
    Phasor S-FLIM: a new paradigm for fast and robust spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging.
    Nat Methods. 2021; 18(5): 542-550.
  12. Gunther G, Malacrida L, Jameson DM, Gratton E, Sánchez SA.
    LAURDAN since Weber: The quest for visualizing membrane heterogeneity.
    Acc Chem Res. 2021; 54(4): 976-987. PMCID: PMC8552415
  13. Ranjit S, Lanzanò L, Libby AE, Gratton E, Levi M.
    Advances in fluorescence microscopy techniques to study kidney function.
    Nat Rev Nephrol. 2021; 17(2): 128-144.
  14. Sameni S, Zhang R, Digman MA.
    The phasor FLIM method reveals a link between a change in energy metabolism and mHtt protein spread in healthy mammalian cells when co-cultured with Huntington diseased cells.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2021; 9(1), 015005.


  1. Greco CM, Cervantes M, Fustin JM, Ito K, Ceglia N, Samad M, Shi J, Koronowski KB, Forne I, Ranjit S, Gaucher J, Kinouchi K, Kojima R, Gratton E, Li W, Baldi P, Imhof A, Okamura H, Sassone-Corsi P.
    S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase links methionine metabolism to the circadian clock and chromatin remodeling.
    Sci Adv. 2020; 6(51), eabc5629. PMCID: PMC7744083
  2. Vallmitjana A, Torrado B, Dvornikov A, Ranjit S, Gratton E.
    Blind resolution of lifetime components in individual pixels of fluorescence lifetime images using the phasor approach.
    J Phys Chem B. 2020; 124(45): 10126-10137.
  3. Makaremi S, Rose M, Ranjit S, Digman MA, Bowdish DME, Moran-Mirabal JM.
    Lateral diffusion of CD14 and TLR2 in macrophage plasma membrane assessed by raster image correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.
    Sci Rep. 2020; 10(1): 19375. PMCID: PMC7652837
  4. Ranjit S, Henriksen K, Dvornikov A, Delsante M, Rosenberg A, Levi M, Gratton E.
    Phasor approach to autofluorescence lifetime imaging FLIM can be a qantitative biomarker of chronic renal Parenchymal injury.
    Kidney Int. 2020; 98(5): 1341-1346. PMCID: PMC7606347
  5. Chen YC, Sood C, Marin M, Aaron J, Gratton E, Salaita K, Melikyan GB.
    Super-resolution fluorescence imaging reveals that Serine incorporator protein 5 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus fusion by disrupting envelope glycoprotein clusters.
    ACS Nano. 2020; 14(9): 10929-10943. PMCID: PMC8274448
  6. Hedde PN, Abram TJ, Jain A, Nakajima R, de Assis RR, Pearce T, Jasinskas A, Toosky MN, Khan S, Felgner PL, Gratton E, Zhao W.
    A modular microarray imaging system for highly specific COVID-19 antibody testing.
    Lab Chip. 2020; 20(18): 3302-3309. PMCID: PMC7263497
  7. Harris CR, Millman KJ, van der Walt SJ, Gommers R, Virtanen P, Cournapeau D, Wieser E, Taylor J, Berg S, Smith NJ, Kern R, Picus M, Hoyer S, van Kerkwijk MH, Brett M, Haldane A, Río JFd, Wiebe M, Peterson P, Gérard-Marchant P, Sheppard K, Reddy T, Weckesser W, Abbasi H, Gohlke C, Oliphant TE.
    Array programming with NumPy.
    Nature. 2020; 585(7825): 357-362. PMCID: PMC7759461
  8. Palczewska G, Boguslawski J, Stremplewsk P, Kornaszewski L, Zhang J, Dong Z, Liang XX, Gratton E, Vogel A, Wojtkowski M, Palczewski K.
    Noninvasive two-photon optical biopsy of retinal fluorophores.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020; 117(36): 22532-22543. PMCID: PMC7486747
  9. Li W, Hu J, Sh B, Palomba F, Digman MA, Gratton E, Jiang H.
    Biophysical properties of AKAP95 protein condensates regulate splicing and tumorigenesis.
    Nat Cell Biol. 2020; 22(8): 960-972. PMCID: PMC7425812
  10. Malacrida L, Hedde PN, Torrado B, Gratton E.
    Barriers to diffusion in cells: visualization of membraneless particles in the nucleus.
    Biophysicist (Rockv). 2020; 1(2): 9. PMCID: PMC9000293
  11. Hedde PN, Bouzin M, Abram TJ, Chen X, Toosky MN, Vu T, Li Y, Zhao W, Gratton E.
    Rapid isolation of rare targets from large fluid volumes.
    Sci Rep. 2020; 10(1), 12458. PMCID: PMC7385493
  12. Cervantes M, Forné I, Ranjit S, Gratton E, Imhof A, Sassone-Corsi P.
    BMAL1 associates with NOP58 in the nucleolus and contributes to pre-rRNA processing.
    iScience. 2020; 23(6), 101151. PMCID: PMC7256328
  13. Vallmitjana A, Dvornikov A, Torrado B, Jameson DM, Ranjit S, Gratton E.
    Resolution of 4 components in the same pixel in FLIM images using the phasor approach.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2020; 8(3), 035001.
  14. Takahashi S, Luo Y, Ranjit S, Xie C, Libby AE, Orlicky DJ, Dvornikov A, Wang XX, Myakala K, Jones BA, Bhasin K, Wang D, McManaman JL, Krausz KW, Gratton E, Ir D, Robertson CE, Frank DN, Gonzalez FJ, Levi M.
    Bile acid sequestration reverses liver injury and prevents progression of NASH in western diet-fed mice.
    J Biol Chem. 2020; 295(14): 4733-4747. PMCID: PMC7135973
  15. Planes N, Vanderheyden PPML, Gratton E, Caballero-George C.
    Image mean square displacement to study the lateral mobility of Angiotensin II type 1 and Endothelin 1 type A receptors on living cells.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2020; 83(4): 381-392.
  16. Pascua SM, McGahey GE, Ma N, Wang JJ, Digman MA.
    Caffeine and Cisplatin effectively targets the metabolism of a triple-negative breast cancer cell line assessed via Phasor-FLIM.
    Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(7), E2443. PMCID: PMC7177700
  17. Haensel D, Jin S, Sun P, Cinco R, Dragan M, Nguyen Q, Cang Z, Gong Y, Vu R, MacLean AL, Kessenbrock K, Gratton E, Nie Q, Dai X.
    Defining epidermal basal cell states during skin homeostasis and wound healing using single-cell transcriptomics.
    Cell Rep. 2020; 30(11): 3932-3947.e6. PMCID: PMC7218802
  18. Liang Z, Lou J, Scipioni L, Gratton E, Hinde E.
    Quantifying nuclear wide chromatin compaction by phasor analysis of histone Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in frequency domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data.
    Data Brief. 2020; 30, 105401. PMCID: PMC7152662
  19. Perinbam K, Chacko JV, Kannan A, Digman MA, Siryaporn A.
    A shift in central metabolism accompanies virulence activation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    mBio. 2020; 11(2), e02730-18. PMCID: PMC7064766
  20. Davis RT, Blake K, Ma D, Gabra MBI, Hernandez GA, Phung AT, Yang Y, Maurer D, Lefebvre AEYT, Alshetaiwi H, Xiao Z, Liu J, Locasale JW, Digman MA, Mjolsness E, Kong M, Werb Z, Lawson DA.
    Transcriptional diversity and bioenergetic shift in human breast cancer metastasis revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.
    Nat Cell Biol. 2020; 22(3): 310-320.
  21. Titlow J, Robertson F, Järvelin A, Ish-Horowicz D, Smith C, Gratton E, Davis I.
    Syncrip/hnRNP Q is required for activity-induced Msp300/Nesprin-1 expression and new synapse formation.
    J Cell Biol. 2020; 219(3), e201903135. PMCID: PMC7055005
  22. Tetreau G, Banneville AS, Andreeva EA, Brewster AS, Hunter MS, Sierra RG, Teulon JM, Young ID, Burke N, Grünewald TA, Beaudouin J, Snigireva I, Fernandez-Luna MT, Burt A, Park HW, Signor L, Bafna JA, Sadir R, Fenel D, Boeri-Erba E, Bacia M, Zala N, Laporte F, Després L, Weik M, Boutet S, Rosenthal M, Coquelle N, Burghammer M, Cascio D, Sawaya MR, Winterhalter M, Gratton E, Gutsche I, Federici B, Pellequer JL, Sauter NK, Colletier JP.
    Serial femtosecond crystallography on in vivo-grown crystals drives elucidation of mosquitocidal Cyt1Aa bioactivation cascade.
    Nat Commun. 2020; 11(1): 1153. PMCID: PMC7052140
  23. Abram TJ, Cherukury H, Ou CY, Vu T, Toledano M, Li Y, Grunwald JT, Toosky MN, Tifrea DF, Slepenkin A, Chong J, Kong L, Pozo DVD, La KT, Labanieh L, Zimak J, Shen B, Huang SS, Gratton E, Peterson EM, Zhao W.
    Rapid bacterial detection and antibiotic susceptibility testing in whole blood using one-step, high throughput blood digital PCR.
    Lab Chip. 2020; 20(3): 477-489. PMCID: PMC7250044
  24. Sameni S, Zhang R, Digman MA.
    Number and molecular brightness analysis reveals Htt25Q protein aggregation upon the uptake of Htt97Q aggregates.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020; 522(1): 133-137.
  25. Pedrote MM, Motta MF, Ferretti GDS, Norberto DR, Spohr TCLS, Lima FRS, Gratton E, Silva JL, de Oliveira GAP.
    Oncogenic gain of function in Glioblastoma is linked to mutant p53 Amyloid oligomers.
    iScience. 2020; 23(2), 100820. PMCID: PMC6976948
  26. Castro-Castillo V, Gajardo J, Sandoval-Altamirano C, Gratton E, Sanchez S, Malacrida L, Gunther G.
    CAPRYDAA, an anthracene dye analog to LAURDAN: a comparative study using cuvette and microscopy.
    J Mater Chem B. 2020; 8(1). PMCID: PMC7029800


  1. Hedde PN, Staaf E, Singh SB, Johansson S, Gratton E.
    Pair correlation analysis maps the dynamic two-dimensional organization of natural killer cell receptors at the synapse.
    ACS Nano. 2019; 13(2): 14274-14282. PMCID: PMC8427743
  2. Sitiwin E, Madigan MC, Gratton E, Cherepanoff S, Conway RM, Whan R, Macmillan A.
    Shedding light on melanins within in situ human eye melanocytes using 2-photon microscopy profiling techniques.
    Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1), 18585. PMCID: PMC6901595
  3. Oneto M, Scipioni L, Sarmento MJ, Cainero I, Pelicci S, Furia L, Pelicci PG, Dellino GI, Bianchini P, Faretta M, Gratton E, Diaspro A, Lanzanò L.
    Nanoscale distribution of nuclear sites by super-resolved image cross-correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2019; 117(11): 2054-2065. PMCID: PMC6895719
  4. Ranjit S, Datta R, Dvornikov AS, Gratton E.
    Multicomponent analysis of phasor plot in a single pixel to calculate changes of metabolic trajectory in biological systems.
    J Phys Chem A. 2019; 123(45): 9865-9873.
  5. Ranjit S, Malacrida L, Stakic M, Gratton E.
    Determination of the metabolic index using the fluorescence lifetime of free and bound NADH in the phasor approach.
    J Biophotonics. 2019; 12(11), e201900156. PMCID: PMC6842045
  6. Gabriel M, Anzalone A, Gratton E, Estrada LC.
    A tracking-based nanoimaging method for fast detection of surfaces' inhomogeneities using gold nanoparticles.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2019; 82(11): 1835-1842.
  7. Murata MM, Kong X, Moncada E, Chen Y, Imamura H, Wang P, Berns MW, Yokomori K, Digman MA.
    NAD+ consumption by PARP1 in response to DNA damage triggers metabolic shift critical for damaged cell survival.
    Mol Biol Cell. 2019; 30(20): 2584-2597. PMCID: PMC6740200
  8. Ma N, de Mochel NR, Pham PD, Yoo TY, Cho KWY, Digman MA.
    Label-free assessment of pre-implantation embryo quality by the Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)-phasor approach.
    Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1), 13206. PMCID: PMC6744410
  9. Trivedi P, Palomba F, Niedzialkowska E, Digman MA, Gratton E, Stukenberg PT.
    The inner centromere is a biomolecular condensate scaffolded by the chromosomal passenger complex.
    Nat Cell Biol. 2019; 21(9): 1127-1137. PMCID: PMC7341897
  10. Dong Y, Sameni S, Digman MA, Brewer GJ.
    Reversibility of age-related oxidized free NADH redox states in Alzheimer's disease neurons by imposed external Cys/CySS redox shifts.
    Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1), 11274. PMCID: PMC6677822
  11. Levi M, Gratton E, Forster IC, Hernando N, Wagner CA, Biber J, Sorribas V, Murer H.
    Mechanisms of phosphate transport.
    Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019; 15(8): 482-500.
  12. Dvornikov A, Malacrida L, Gratton E.
    The DIVER microscope for imaging in scattering media.
    Methods Protoc. 2019; 2(2): 53. PMCID: PMC6632175
  13. Polyzos AA, Lee DY, Datta R, Hauser M, Budworth H, Holt A, Mihalik S, Goldschmidt P, Frankel K, Trego K, Bennett MJ, Vockley J, Xu K, Gratton E, McMurray CT.
    Metabolic reprogramming in astrocytes distinguishes region-specific neuronal susceptibility in Huntington mice.
    Cell Metab. 2019; 29(6): 1258-1273. PMCID: PMC6583797
  14. Rodriguez-Agudo D, Malacrida L, Kakiyama G, Sparrer T, Fortes C, Maceyka M, Sublerh MA, Windle JJ, Gratton E, Pandak WM, Gil G.
    StarD5: an ER stress protein regulates plasma membrane and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.
    J Lipid Res. 2019; 60(6): 1087-1098. PMCID: PMC6547630
  15. Chen H, Ma N, Kagawa K, Kawahito S, Digman M, Gratton E.
    Widefield multifrequency fluorescence lifetime imaging using a two-tap complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera with lateral electric field charge modulators.
    J Biophotonics. 2019; 12(5), e201800223.
  16. Planes N, Digman MA, Vanderheyden PPML, Gratton E, Caballero-George C.
    Number and brightness analysis to study spatio-temporal distribution of the angiotensin II AT1 and the endothelin-1 ETA receptors: Influence of ligand binding.
    Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2019; 1863(5): 917-924.
  17. Lou J, Scipioni L, Wright BK, Bartolec TK, Zhang J, Masamsetti VP, Gaus K, Gratton E, Cesare AJ, Hinde E.
    Phasor histone FLIM-FRET microscopy quantifies spatiotemporal rearrangement of chromatin architecture during the DNA damage response.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2019; 116(15): 7323-7332. PMCID: PMC6462080
  18. Levi M, Gratton E.
    Visualizing the regulation of SLC34 proteins at the apical membrane.
    Pflugers Arch. 2019; 471(4): 533-542. PMCID: PMC6436987
  19. Ou CY, Vu T, Grunwald JT, Toledano M, Zimak J, Toosky M, Shen B, Zell JA, Gratton E, Abram TJ, Zhao W.
    An ultrasensitive test for profiling circulating tumor DNA using integrated comprehensive droplet digital detection.
    Lab Chip. 2019; 19(6): 993-1005. PMCID: PMC6559803
  20. Begarani F, D'Autilia F, Signore G, Grosso AD, Cecchini M, Gratton E, Beltram F, Cardarelli F.
    Capturing metabolism-dependent solvent dynamics in the lumen of a trafficking lysosome.
    ACS Nano. 2019; 13(2): 1670-1682.
  21. Hedde PN, Abram T, Vu T, Zhao W, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence lifetime detection with particle counting devices.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2019; 10(3): 1223-1233. PMCID: PMC6420272
  22. Dong Y, Digman MA, Brewer GJ.
    Age- and AD-related redox state of NADH in subcellular compartments by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    Geroscience. 2019; 41(1): 51-67. PMCID: PMC6423217
  23. Ma N, Kamalakshakurup G, Aghaamoo M, Lee AP, Digman MA.
    Label-Free Metabolic Classification of Single Cells in Droplets Using the Phasor Approach to Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy.
    Cytometry A. 2019; 95(1): 93-100. PMCID: PMC6613543


  1. Scipioni L, Lanzanò L, Diaspro A, Gratton E.
    Comprehensive correlation analysis for super-resolution dynamic fingerprinting of cellular compartments using the Zeiss Airyscan detector.
    Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1), 5120. PMCID: PMC6269422
  2. Malacrida L, Gratton E.
    LAURDAN fluorescence and phasor plots reveal the effects of a H2O2 bolus in NIH-3T3 fibroblast membranes dynamics and hydration.
    Free Radic Biol Med. 2018; 128: 144-156. PMCID: PMC6175669
  3. Mah EJ, Lefebvre AEYT, McGahey GE, Yee AF, Digman MA.
    Collagen density modulates triple-negative breast cancer cell metabolism through adhesion-mediated contractility.
    Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1), 17094. PMCID: PMC6244401
  4. Ranjit S, Malacrida L, Gratton E.
    Differences between FLIM phasor analyses for data collected with the Becker and Hickl SPC830 card and with the FLIMbox card.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2018; 81(9): 980-989. PMCID: PMC6240382
  5. Ranjit S, Malacrida L, Jameson DM, Gratton E.
    Fit-free analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging data using the phasor approach.
    Nat. Protoc. 2018; 13(9): 1979-2004.
  6. Hedde PN, Gratton E.
    Selective plane illumination microscopy with a light sheet of uniform thickness formed by an electrically tunable lens.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2018; 81(9): 924-928. PMCID: PMC5479743
  7. Hellenkamp B, Schmid S, Doroshenko O, Opanasyuk O, Kühnemuth R, Adariani SR, Ambrose B, Aznauryan M, Barth A, Birkedal V, Bowen ME, Chen H, Cordes T, Eilert T, Fijen C, Gebhardt C, Götz M, Gouridis G, Gratton E, Ha T, Hao P, Hanke CA, Hartmann A, Hendrix J, Hildebrandt LL, Hirschfeld V, Hohlbein J, Hua B, Hübner CG, Kallis E, Kapanidis AN, Kim JY, Krainer G, Lamb DC, Lee NK, Lemke EA, Levesque B, Levitus M, McCann JJ, Naredi-Rainer N, Nettels D, Ngo T, Qiu R, Robb NC, Röcker C, Sanabria H, Schlierf M, Schröder T, Schuler B, Seidel H, Streit L, Thurn J, Tinnefeld P, Tyagi S, Vandenberk N, Vera AM, Weninger KR, Wünsch B, Yanez-Orozco IS, Michaelis J, Seidel CAM, Craggs TD, Hugel T.
    Precision and accuracy of single-molecule FRET measurements-a multi-laboratory benchmark study.
    Nat Methods. 2018; 15(9): 669-676. PMCID: PMC6121742
  8. Pedrote MM, de Oliveira GAP, Felix AL, Mota MF, de Marques MA, Soares IN, Iqbal A, Norberto DR, Gomes AMO, Gratton E, Cino EA, Silva JL.
    Aggregation-primed molten globule conformers of the p53 core domain provide potential tools for studying p53C aggregation in cancer.
    J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(29): 11374-11387. PMCID: PMC6065177
  9. Dvornikov A, Gratton E.
    Hyperspectral imaging in highly scattering media by the spectral phasor approach using two filters.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2018; 9(8): 3503-3511. PMCID: PMC6191637
  10. Kim SM, Nguyen TT, Ravi A, Kubiniok P, Finicle BT, Jayashankar V, Malacrida L, Hou J, Robertson J, Gao D, Chernoff J, Digman MA, Potma EO, Tromberg BJ, Thibault P, Edinger AL.
    PTEN deficiency and AMPK activation promote nutrient scavenging and anabolism in prostate cancer cells.
    Cancer Discov. 2018; 8(7): 866-883. PMCID: PMC6030497
  11. Anzalone A, Chacko JV, Nishi RA, Dumont C, Smith D, Shea LD, Digman MA, Cummings BJ, Anderson AJ.
    Feasibility study on mouse live imaging after spinal cord injury and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) bridge implantation.
    J Biomed Opt. 2018; 23(6): 1-6.
  12. Davey RJ, Digman MA, Gratton E, Moens PDJ.
    Quantitative image mean squared displacement (iMSD) analysis of the dynamics of Profilin 1 at the membrane of live cells.
    Methods. 2018; 140-141: 119-125. PMCID: PMC5995621
  13. Malacrida L, Rao E, Gratton E.
    Comparison between iMSD and 2D-pCF analysis for molecular motion studies on in vivo cells: the case of the epidermal growth factor receptor.
    Methods. 2018; 140-141: 74-84. PMCID: PMC5999564
  14. Lee DH, Li X, Ma N, Digman MA, Lee AP.
    Rapid and label-free identification of single leukemia cells from blood in a high-density microfluidic trapping array by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    Lab Chip. 2018; 18(9): 1349-1358.
  15. Kobylkevich BM, Sarkar A, Carlberg BR, Huang L, Ranjit S, Graham DM, Messerli MA.
    Reversing the direction of galvanotaxis with controlled increases in boundary layer viscosity.
    Phys Biol. 2018; 15(3): 036005. PMCID: PMC5970543
  16. Staaf E, Hedde PN, Singh SB, Piguet J, Gratton E, Johansson S.
    Educated natural killer cells show dynamic movement of the activating receptor NKp46 and confinement of the inhibitory receptor Ly49A.
    Sci Signal. 2018; 11(517), eaai9200. PMCID: PMC5925740
  17. Kong L, Murata MM, Digman MA.
    Absence of REV3L promotes p53-regulated cancer cell metabolism in cisplatin-treated lung carcinoma cells.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 496(1): 199-204. PMCID: PMC6327949
  18. Mäntylä E, Chacko JV, Aho V, Parrish CR, Shahin V, Kann M, Digman MA, Gratton E, Vihinen-Ranta M.
    Viral highway to nucleus exposed by image correlation analyses.
    Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1): 1152. PMCID: PMC5773500
  19. Sameni S, Malacrida L, Tan Z, Digman MA.
    Alteration in fluidity of cell plasma membrane in Huntington disease revealed by spectral phasor Analysis.
    Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1): 734. PMCID: PMC5768877
  20. Wang XX, Wang D, Luo Y, Myakala K, Dobrinskikh E, Rosenberg AZ, Levi J, Kopp JB, Field A, Hill A, Lucia S, Qiu L, Jiang T, Peng Y, Orlicky D, Garcia G, Herman-Edelstein M, D’Agati V, Henriksen K, Adorini L, Pruzanski M, Xie C, Krausz KW, Gonzalez FJ, Ranjit S, Dvornikov A, Gratton E, Levi M.
    FXR/TGR5 dual agonist prevents progression of nephropathy in diabetes and obesity.
    J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018; 29(1). PMCID: PMC5748904
  21. Malacrida L, Hedde PN, Ranjit S, Cardarelli F, Gratton E.
    Visualization of barriers and obstacles to molecular diffusion in live cells by spatial pair-cross-correlation in two dimensions.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2018; 9(1): 303-321. PMCID: PMC5772584


  1. Gach JS, Bouzin M, Wong MP, Chromikova V, Gorlani A, Yu KT, Sharma B, Gratton E, Forthal DN.
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) evades antibody-dependent phagocytosis.
    PLoS Pathog. 2017; 13(12), e1006793. PMCID: PMC5760106
  2. Trinh AL, Chen H, Chen Y, Hu Y, Li Z, Siegel ER, Linskey ME, Wang PH, Digman MA, Zhou YH.
    Tracking functional tumor cell subpopulations of malignant glioma by phasor fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of NADH.
    Cancers (Basel). 2017; 9(12), E168. PMCID: PMC5742816
  3. Bohórquez-Hernández A, Gratton E, Pacheco J, Asanov A, Vaca L.
    Cholesterol modulates the cellular localization of Orai1 channels and its disposition among membrane domains.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017; 1862(12): 1481-1490. PMCID: PMC5902182
  4. Digiacomo L, Cardarelli F, Pozzi D, Palchetti S, Digman MA, Gratton E, Capriotti AL, Mahmoudi M, Caracciolo G.
    An apolipoprotein-enriched biomolecular corona switches the cellular uptake mechanism and trafficking pathway of lipid nanoparticles.
    Nanoscale. 2017; 9(44): 17254-17262. PMCID: PMC5700750
  5. Malacrida L, Jameson DM, Gratton E.
    A multidimensional phasor approach reveals LAURDAN photophysics in NIH-3T3 cell membranes.
    Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1): 9215. PMCID: PMC5569084
  6. Hedde PN, Malacrida L, Ahrar S, Siryaporn A, Gratton E.
    sideSPIM - selective plane illumination based on a conventional inverted microscope.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2017; 8(9): 3918-3937. PMCID: PMC5611913
  7. Liu L, Zhang SX, Liao W, Farhoodi HP, Wong CW, Chen CC, Ségaliny AI, Chacko JV, Nguyen LP, Lu M, Polovin G, Pone EJ, Downing TL, Lawson DA, Digman MA, Zhao W.
    Mechanoresponsive stem cells to target cancer metastases through biophysical cues.
    Sci Transl Med. 2017; 9(400), aan2966. PMCID: PMC5890431
  8. Stortz M, Presman DM, Bruno L, Annibale P, Dansey MV, Burton G, Gratton E, Pecci A, Levi V.
    Mapping the dynamics of the Glucocorticoid Receptor within the nuclear landscape.
    Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1), 6219. PMCID: PMC5524710
  9. Herrington KA, Trinh AL, Dang C, O’Shaughnessy E, Hahn KM, Gratton E, Digman MA, Sütterlin C.
    Spatial analysis of Cdc42 activity reveals a role for plasma membrane-associated Cdc42 in centrosome regulation.
    Mol Biol Cell. 2017; 28(15): 2135-2145. PMCID: PMC5509425
  10. Bhattacharjee A, Datta R, Gratton E, Hochbaum AI.
    Metabolic fingerprinting of bacteria by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1), 3743. PMCID: PMC5473825
  11. Ranjit S, Dvornikov A, Dobrinskikh E, Wang X, Luo Y, Levi M, Gratton E.
    Measuring the effect of a Western diet on liver tissue architecture by FLIM autofluorescence and harmonic generation microscopy.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2017; 8(7): 3143-3154. PMCID: PMC5508820
  12. Ceccarelli A, di Venere A, Nicolai E, de Luca A, Rosato N, Gratton E, Mei G, Caccuri AM.
    New insight into the interaction of TRAF2 C-terminal domain with lipid raft microdomains.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017; 1862(9): 813-822. PMCID: PMC5562040
  13. Liang EI, Mah EJ, Yee AF, Digman MA.
    Correlation of focal adhesion assembly and disassembly with cell migration on nanotopography.
    Integr Biol (Camb). 2017; 9(2): 145-155. PMCID: PMC5399776
  14. de Vega GB, Ceballos JA, Anzalone A, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    A laser-scanning confocal microscopy study of carrageenan in red algae from seaweed farms near the Caribbean entrance of the Panama Canal.
    J Appl Phycol. 2017; 29(1): 495-508.
  15. Romero-López M, Trinh AL, Sobrino A, Hatch MMS, Keating MT, Fimbres C, Lewis DE, Gershon PD, Botvinick EL, Digman MA, Lowengrub JS, Hughes CCW.
    Recapitulating the human tumor microenvironment: Colon tumor-derived extracellular matrix promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell growth.
    Biomaterials. 2017; 116: 118-129. PMCID: PMC5226635


  1. Porcaro F, Miao Y, Kota R, Haun JB, Polzonetti G, Battocchio C, Gratton E.
    Fluctuation spectroscopy analysis of glucose capped gold nanoparticles.
    Langmuir. 2016; 32(50): 13409-13417. PMCID: PMC5470844
  2. Chen CC, Liu L, Ma F, Wong CW, Guo XE, Chacko JV, Farhoodi HP, Zhang SX, Zimak J, Ségaliny A, Riazifar M, Pham V, Digman MA, Pone EJ, Zhao W.
    Elucidation of exosome migration across the blood-brain barrier model in vitro.
    Cell Mol Bioeng. 2016; 9(4): 509-529. PMCID: PMC5382965
  3. Malacrida L, Astrada S, Briva A, Bollati-Fogolín M, Gratton E, Bagatolli LA.
    Spectral Phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1858(11): 2625-2635. PMCID: PMC5045802
  4. Ranjit S, Dobrinskikh E, Montford J, Dvornikov A, Lehman A, Orlicky DJ, Nemenoff R, Gratton E, Levi M, Furgeson S.
    Label-free fluorescence lifetime and second harmonic generation imaging microscopy improves quantification of experimental renal fibrosis.
    Kidney Int. 2016; 90(5): 1123-1128. PMCID: PMC5473685
  5. Aguilar-Arnal L, Ranjit S, Stringari C, Orozco-Solis R, Gratton E.
    Spatial dynamics of SIRT1 and the subnuclear distribution of NADH species.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016; 113(45): 12715-12720. PMCID: PMC5111721
  6. Sameni S, Syed A, Marsh JL, Digman MA.
    The phasor-FLIM fingerprints reveal shifts from OXPHOS to enhanced glycolysis in Huntington Disease.
    Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 34755. PMCID: PMC5054433
  7. Cinco R, Digman MA, Gratton E, Luderer U.
    Spatial characterization of bioenergetics and metabolism of primordial to preovulatory follicles in whole ex vivo murine ovary.
    Biol Reprod. 2016; 95(6): 129. PMCID: PMC5315427
  8. Qiu Y, Lin CY, Hinkle P, Plett TS, Yang C, Chacko JV, Digman MA, Yeh LH, Hsu JP, Siwy ZS.
    Highly charged particles cause a larger current blockage in micropores compared to neutral particles.
    ACS Nano. 2016; 10(9): 8413-8422.
  9. Digiacomo L, Digman MA, Gratton E, Caracciolo G.
    Development of an image Mean Square Displacement (iMSD)-based method as a novel approach to study the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles.
    Acta Biomater. 2016; 42: 189-198. PMCID: PMC5483853
  10. Serebryannyy LA, Parilla M, Annibale P, Cruz CM, Laster K, Gratton E, Kudryashov D, Kosak ST, Gottardi CJ, de Lanerolle P.
    Persistent nuclear actin filaments inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II.
    J Cell Sci. 2016; 129(18): 3412-3425. PMCID: PMC5047679
  11. Chen H, Gratton E, Digman MA.
    Self-assisted optothermal trapping of gold nanorods under two-photon excitation.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2016; 4(3): 035003. PMCID: PMC5497913
  12. Dvornikov A, Gratton E.
    Imaging in turbid media: a transmission detector gives 2-3 order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity compared to epi-detection schemes.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2016; 7(9): 3747-3755. PMCID: PMC5030047
  13. Di Rienzo C, Gratton E, Beltram F, Cardarelli F.
    Spatiotemporal fluctuation analysis: a powerful tool for the future nanoscopy of molecular processes.
    Biophys J. 2016; 111(4): 679-685. PMCID: PMC5002078
  14. Di Rienzo C, Cardarelli F, Di Luca M, Beltram F, Gratton E.
    Diffusion tensor analysis by two-dimensional pair correlation of fluorescence fluctuations in cells.
    Biophys J. 2016; 111(4): 841-851. PMCID: PMC5002073
  15. Sobrino A, Phan DTT, Datta R, Wang X, Hachey SJ, Romero-López M, Gratton E, Lee AP, George SC, Hughes CCW.
    3D microtumors in vitro supported by perfused vascular networks.
    Sci Rep. 2016; 6, 31589. PMCID: PMC4994029
  16. Ranjit S, Dvornikov A, Levi M, Furgeson S, Gratton E.
    Characterizing fibrosis in UUO mice model using multiparametric analysis of phasor distribution from FLIM images.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2016; 7(9): 3519-3530. PMCID: PMC5030029
  17. Scipion L, Gratton E, Diaspro A, Lanzanò L.
    Phasor analysis of local ICS detects heterogeneity in size and number of intracellular vesicles.
    Biophys J. 2016; 111(3): 619-629. PMCID: PMC4982927
  18. Szymanska AF, Heylman C, Datta R, Gratton E, Nenadic Z.
    Automated detection and analysis of depolarization events in human cardiomyocytes using MaDEC.
    Comput Biol Med. 2016; 75: 109-117. PMCID: PMC4938768
  19. Ma N, Digman MA, Malacrida L, Gratton E.
    Measurements of absolute concentrations of NADH in cells using the phasor FLIM method.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2016; 7(7): 2441-2452. PMCID: PMC4948605
  20. Noutsi P, Gratton E, Chaieb S.
    Assessment of membrane fluidity fluctuations during cellular development reveals time and cell type specificity.
    PLoS One. 2016; 11(6): e0158313. PMCID: PMC4928918
  21. Clark NM, Hinde E, Winter CM, Fisher AP, Crosti G, Blilou I, Gratton E, Benfey PN, Sozzani R.
    Tracking transcription factor mobility and interaction in Arabidopsis roots with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    eLife. 2016; 5: e14770. PMCID: PMC4946880
  22. Cardarelli F, Digiacomo L, Marchini C, Amici A, Salomone F, Fiume G, Rossetta A, Gratton E, Pozzi D, Caracciolo G.
    The intracellular trafficking mechanism of Lipofectamine-based transfection reagents and its implication for gene delivery.
    Sci Rep. 2016; 11(6): 25879. PMCID: PMC4863168
  23. Lin S, Hedde PN, Venugopalan V, Gratton E, Khine M.
    Multi-scale silica structures for improved HIV-1 Capsid (p24) antigen detection.
    Analyst. 2016; 141(13): 4181-4188. PMCID: PMC4924925
  24. Borrego SL, Fahrmann J, Datta R, Stringari C, Grapov D, Zeller M, Chen Y, Wang P, Baldi P, Gratton E, Fiehn O, Kaiser P.
    Metabolic changes associated with methionine stress sensitivity in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.
    Cancer Metab. 2016; 4: 9. PMCID: PMC4852440
  25. Alfonso-García A, Smith TD, Datta R, Luu TU, Gratton E, Potma EO, Liu WF.
    Label-free identification of macrophage phenotype by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    J Biomed Opt. 2016; 21(4): 46005. PMCID: PMC4833856
  26. Sosnik J, Zheng L, Rackauckas CV, Digman MA, Gratton E, Nie Q, Schilling TF.
    Noise modulation in retinoic acid signaling sharpens segmental boundaries of gene expression in the embryonic zebrafish hindbrain.
    eLife. 2016; 5: e14034. PMCID: PMC4829421
  27. Datta R, Heylman C, George SC, Gratton E.
    Label-free imaging of metabolism and oxidative stress in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2016; 7(5): 1690-701. PMCID: PMC4871074
  28. Hinde E, Pandžić E, Yang Z, Ng IHW, Jans DA, Bogoyevitch MA, Gratton E, Gaus K.
    Quantifying the dynamics of the oligomeric transcription factor STAT3 by pair correlation of molecular brightness.
    Nat Commun. 2016; 7: 11047. PMCID: PMC4820838
  29. Brenner MD, Zhou R, Conway DE, Lanzanò L, Gratton E, Schwartz MA, Ha T.
    Spider silk peptide is a compact, linear nano-spring ideal for intracellular tension sensing.
    Nano Lett. 2016; 16(3): 2096-2102. PMCID: PMC4851340
  30. Wang B, Rong X, Duerr MA, Hermanson DJ, Hedde PN, Wong JS, de Vallim TQA, Cravatt BF, Gratton E, Ford DA, Tontonoz P.
    Intestinal phospholipid remodeling is required for dietary-lipid uptake and survival on a high-fat diet.
    Cell Metab. 2016; 23: 1-13. PMCID: PMC4785086
  31. Annibale P, Dvornikov A, Gratton E.
    Optical measurement of focal offset in tunable lenses.
    Opt Express. 2016; 24(2): 1031-1036. PMCID: PMC4741313
  32. Moore JS, Xantheas SS, Grate JW, Wietsma TW, Gratton E, Vasdekis AE.
    Modular polymer biosensors by solvent immersion imprint lithography.
    J Polym Sci B Polym Phys. 2016; 54(1): 98-103. PMCID: PMC5111810


  1. Heylman C, Datta R, Sobrino A, George S, Gratton E.
    Supervised machine learning for classification of the electrophysiological effects of chronotropic drugs on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
    PLoS One. 2015; 10(12): e0144572. PMCID: PMC4690607
  2. Chen H, Holst G, Gratton E.
    Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2015; 78(12): 1075-1081. PMCID: PMC4770881
  3. Lakhani VV, Hinde E, Gratton E, Elston TC.
    Spatio-temporal regulation of Rac1 mobility by actin islands.
    PLoS One. 2015; 10(11): e0143753. PMCID: PMC4659588
  4. Malacrida L, Gratton E, Jameson DM.
    Model-free methods to study membrane environmental probes: a comparison of the spectral phasor and generalized polarization approaches.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2015; 3(4): 047001. PMCID: PMC4862737
  5. Zhang K, Kang DK, Ali MM, Liu L, Labanieh L, Lu M, Riazifar H, Nguyen TN, Zell JA, Digman MA, Gratton E, Li J, Zhao W.
    Digital quantification of miRNA directly in plasma using integrated comprehensive droplet digital detection.
    Lab Chip. 2015; 15(21): 4217-4226. PMCID: PMC4631652
  6. Tan Z, Dai W, van Erp TGM, Overman J, Demuro A, Digman MA, Hatami A, Albay R, Sontag EM, Potkin KT, Ling S, Macciardi F, Bunney WE, Long JD, Paulsen JS, Ringman JM, Parker I, Glabe C, Thompson LM, Chiu W, Potkin SG.
    Huntington’s disease cerebrospinal fluid seeds aggregation of mutant huntingtin.
    Mol Psychiatry. 2015; 20(11): 1286-1293. PMCID: PMC4718563
  7. Adu-Gyamfi E, Johnson KA, Fraser ME, Scott JL, Soni SP, Jones KR, Digman MA, Gratton E, Tessier CR, Stahelin RV.
    Host cell plasma membrane phosphatidylserine regulates the assembly and budding of the Ebola virus.
    J Virol. 2015; 89(18): 9440-9453. PMCID: PMC4542376
  8. Mieruszynski S, Digman MA, Gratton E, Jones MR.
    Characterization of exogenous DNA mobility in live cells through fluctuation correlation spectroscopy.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 13848. PMCID: PMC4564760
  9. Hedde PN, Ranjit S, Gratton E.
    3D fluorescence anisotropy imaging using selective plane illumination microscopy.
    Opt Express. 2015; 23(17): 22308-22317. PMCID: PMC4646523
  10. Ranjit S, Dvornikov A, Stakic M, Hong SH, Levi M, Evans RM, Gratton E.
    Imaging fibrosis and separating collagens using second harmonic generation and phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 13378. PMCID: PMC4543938
  11. Hendrix J, Baumgärtel V, Schrimpf W, Ivanchenko S, Digman MA, Gratton E, Kräusslich HG, Müller B, Lamb DC.
    Live-cell observation of cytosolic HIV-1 assembly onset reveals RNA-interacting Gag oligomers.
    J Cell Biol. 2015; 210(4): 629-646. PMCID: PMC4539982
  12. Hinde E, Cardarelli F, Gratton E.
    Spatiotemporal regulation of Heterochromatin Protein 1- alpha oligomerization and dynamics in live cells.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 12001. PMCID: PMC4523856
  13. Ito A, Hong C, Rong X, Zhu X, Tarling EJ, Hedde PN, Gratton E, Parks J, Tontonoz P.
    LXRs link metabolism to inflammation through Abca1-dependent regulation of membrane composition and TLR signaling.
    eLife. 2015; 4: e08009. PMCID: PMC4517437
  14. Plotegher N, Stringari C, Jahid S, Veronesi M, Girotto S, Gratton E, Bubacco L.
    NADH fluorescence lifetime is an endogenous reporter of α-synuclein aggregation in live cells.
    FASEB J. 2015; 29(6): 2484-2494. PMCID: PMC4447231
  15. Hedde PN, Gratton E.
    Active focus stabilization for upright selective plane illumination microscopy.
    Opt Express. 2015; 23(11): 14707-14714. PMCID: PMC4523369
  16. Mieruszynski S, Briggs C, Digman MA, Gratton E, Jones MR.
    Live cell characterization of DNA aggregation delivered through lipofection.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 10528. PMCID: PMC4444954
  17. Annibale P, Dvornikov A, Gratton E.
    Electrically tunable lens speeds up 3D orbital tracking.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2015; 6(6): 2181-2190. PMCID: PMC4473752
  18. Datta R, Alfonso-García A, Cinco R, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous biomarker of oxidative stress.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 9848. PMCID: PMC4438616
  19. Anzalone A, Gabriel M, Estrada LC, Gratton E.
    Spectral properties of single gold nanoparticles in close proximity to biological fluorophores excited by 2-photon excitation.
    PLoS One. 2015; 10(4): e0124975. PMCID: PMC4409109
  20. Olivera-Couto A, Salzman V, Mailhos M, Digman MA, Gratton E, Aguilar PS.
    Eisosomes are dynamic plasma membrane domains showing Pil1-Lsp1 heteroligomer binding equilibrium.
    Biophys J. 2015; 108(7): 1633-1644. PMCID: PMC4390835
  21. Lanzanò L, Hernández IC, Castello M, Gratton E, Diaspro A, Vicidomini G.
    Encoding and decoding spatio-temporal information for super-resolution microscopy.
    Nat Commun. 2015; 6, 6701. PMCID: PMC4384168
  22. Rong X, Wang B, Dunham MM, Hedde PN, Wong JS, Gratton E, Young SG, Ford DA, Tontonoz P.
    Lpcat3-dependent production of arachidonoyl phospholipids is a key determinant of triglyceride secretion.
    eLife. 2015; 4: e06557. PMCID: PMC4400582
  23. Moens PDJ, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Modes of diffusion of Cholera toxin bound to GM1 on live cell membrane by image mean square displacement analysis.
    Biophys J. 2015; 108(6): 1448-1458. PMCID: PMC4375681
  24. Perumal V, Krishnan K, Gratton E, Dharmarajan AM, Fox SA.
    Number and brightness analysis of sFRP4 domains in live cells demonstrates vesicle association signal of the NLD domain and dynamic intracellular responses to Wnt3a.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 64: 91-96. PMCID: PMC4464842
  25. Annibale P, Gratton E.
    Single cell visualization of transcription kinetics variance of highly mobile identical genes using 3D nanoimaging.
    Sci Rep. 2015; 5, 9258. PMCID: PMC4365385
  26. Chen H, Gratton E, Digman MA.
    Spectral properties and dynamics of gold nanorods revealed by EMCCD-based spectral phasor method.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2015; 78(4): 283-293. PMCID: PMC4404027
  27. Stringari C, Wang H, Geyfman M, Crosignani V, Kumar V, Takahashi JS, Andersen B, Gratton E.
    In vivo single-cell detection of metabolic oscillations in stem cells.
    Cell Rep. 2015; 10(1): 1-7. PMCID: PMC4340841


  1. di Rienzo C, Piazza V, Gratton E, Beltram F, Cardarelli F.
    Probing short-range protein Brownian motion in the cytoplasm of living cells.
    Nat Commun. 2014; 5: 5891. PMCID: PMC4281647
  2. Ranjit S, Dvornikov AS, Holland D, Reinhart GD, Jameson DM, Gratton E.
    Application of three-photon excitation FCS to the study of protein oligomerization.
    J Phys Chem B. 2014; 118(50): 14627-14631. PMCID: PMC4275161
  3. Ranjit S, Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Mapping diffusion in a living cell via the phasor approach.
    Biophys J. 2014; 107(12): 2775-2785. PMCID: PMC4269802
  4. Hedde PN, Stakic M, Gratton E.
    Rapid measurement of molecular transport and interaction inside living cells using single plane illumination.
    Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 7048. PMCID: PMC4231332
  5. Kang DK, Ali MM, Zhang K, Huang SS, Peterson E, Digman MA, Gratton E, Zhao W.
    Rapid detection of single bacteria in unprocessed blood using Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection.
    Nat Commun. 2014; 5: 5427. PMCID: PMC4243214
  6. Bonaventura G, Barcellona ML, Golfetto O, Nourse JL, Flanagan LA, Gratton E.
    Laurdan monitors different lipids content in eukaryotic membrane during embryonic neural development.
    Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2): 785-794. PMCID: PMC4228983
  7. Adu-Gyamfi E, Soni SP, Jee CS, Digman MA, Gratton E, Stahelin RV.
    A loop region in the N-terminal domain of Ebola virus VP40 is important in viral assembly, budding, and egress.
    Viruses. 2014; 6(10): 3837-3854. PMCID: PMC4213565
  8. di Rienzo C, Gratton E, Beltram F, Cardarelli F.
    From fast fluorescence imaging to molecular diffusion law on live cell membranes in a commercial microscope.
    J Vis Exp. 2014; (92), e51994. PMCID: PMC4461222
  9. Anzalone A, Annibale P, Gratton E.
    3D orbital tracking in a modified two-photon microscope: an application to the tracking of intracellular vesicles.
    J Vis Exp. 2014; (92), e51794. PMCID: PMC4274936
  10. Nicolai E, Garau S, Favalli C, D’Agostini C, Gratton E, Motolese G, Rosato N.
    Evaluation of BiesseBioscreen as a new methodology for bacteriuria screening.
    New Microbiol. 2014; 37(4): 495-501. PMCID: PMC4273739
  11. Subashchandrabose SR, Krishnan K, Gratton E, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R.
    Potential of fluorescence imaging techniques to monitor mutagenic PAH uptake by microalga.
    Environ Sci Technol. 2014; 48(16): 9152-9160. PMCID: PMC4140530
  12. Bachir AI, Zareno J, Moissoglu K, Plow EF, Gratton E, Horwitz AR.
    Integrin-associated complexes form hierarchically with variable stoichiometry in nascent adhesions.
    Curr Biol. 2014; 24(16): 1845-1853. PMCID: PMC4138543
  13. Pate KT, Stringari C, Sprowl-Tanio S, Wang K, TeSlaa T, Hoverter NP, McQuade MM, Garner C, Digman MA, Teitell MA, Edwards RA, Gratton E, Waterman ML.
    Wnt signaling directs a metabolic program of glycolysis and angiogenesis in colon cancer.
    EMBO J. 2014; 33(13): 1454-73. PMCID: PMC4194089
  14. Hinde E, Kong X, Yokomori K, Gratton E.
    Chromatin dynamics during DNA repair revealed by pair correlation analysis of molecular flow in the nucleus.
    Biophys J. 2014; 107(1): 55-65. PMCID: PMC4119266
  15. Chiu CL, Aguilar JS, Tsai CY, Wu G, Gratton E, Digman MA.
    Nanoimaging of focal adhesion dynamics in 3D.
    PLoS One. 2014; 9(6): e99896. PMCID: PMC4069057
  16. Plotegher N, Gratton E, Bubacco L.
    Number and Brightness analysis of alpha-synuclein oligomerization and the associated mitochondrial morphology alterations in live cells.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1840(6): 2014-2024. PMCID: PMC4088272
  17. Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Orbital single particle tracking on a commercial confocal microscope using piezoelectric stage feedback.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2014; 2(2): 024010. PMCID: PMC4235585
  18. Crosignani V, Jahid S, Dvornikov AS, Gratton E.
    A deep tissue fluorescence imaging system with enhanced SHG detection capabilities.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2014; 77(5): 368-373. PMCID: PMC4009694
  19. Sharma H, Digman MA, Felsinger N, Gratton E, Khine M.
    Enhanced emission of fluorophores on shrink-induced wrinkled composite structures.
    Optical Materials Express. 2014; 4(4): 753-763. PMCID: PMC4220269
  20. Jaureguiberry MS, Tricerri MA, Sánchez SA, Finarelli GS, Montanaro MA, Prieto ED, Rimoldi OJ.
    Role of plasma membrane lipid composition on cellular homeostasis: learning from cell line models expressing fatty acid desaturases.
    Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(4): 273-282. PMCID: PMC3967655
  21. Paladino S, Lebreton S, Tivodar S, Formiggini F, Ossato G, Gratton E, Tramier M, Coppey-Moisan M, Zurzolo C.
    Golgi sorting regulates organization and activity of GPI proteins at apical membranes.
    Nat Chem Biol. 2014; 10(5): 350-357. PMCID: PMC4027978
  22. Annibale P, Gratton E.
    Advanced fluorescence microscopy methods for the real-time study of transcription and chromatin dynamics.
    Transcription. 2014; 5(2), e28425. PMCID: PMC4214231
  23. Pozzi D, Marchini C, Cardarelli F, Salomone F, Coppola S, Montani M, Zabaleta ME, Digman MA, Gratton E, Colapicchioni V, Caracciolo G.
    Mechanistic evaluation of the transfection barriers involved in lipid-mediated gene delivery: Interplay between nanostructure and composition.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1838(3): 957-967. PMCID: PMC3940149
  24. Hinde E, Yokomori K, Gaus K, Hahn KM, Gratton E.
    Fluctuation-based imaging of nuclear Rac1 activation by protein oligomerisation.
    Sci Rep. 2014; 4, 4219. PMCID: PMC3936235
  25. O’Carrigan A, Hinde E, Lu N, Xu XQ, Duan H, Huang G, Maka M, Bellottia B, Chen ZH.
    Effects of light irradiance on stomatal regulation and growth of tomato.
    Environ Exp Bot. 2014; 98: 65-73.
  26. James NG, Digman MA, Ross JA, Barylko B, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, Mueller JD, Gratton E, Albanesi JP, Jameson DM.
    A mutation associated with centronuclear myopathy enhances the size and stability of dynamin 2 complexes in cells.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1840(1): 315-321. PMCID: PMC3859711


  1. Gehricke JG, Polzonetti CM, Caburian C, Gratton E.
    Prefrontal hemodynamic changes during cigarette smoking in young adult smokers with and without ADHD.
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013; 112: 78-81. PMCID: PMC3854671
  2. Chiu CL, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Measuring actin flow in 3D cell protrusions.
    Biophys J. 2013; 105(8): 1746-1755. PMCID: PMC3797595
  3. Chiu CL, Gratton E.
    Axial super resolution topography of focal adhesion by confocal microscopy.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2013; 76(10): 1070-1078. PMCID: PMC3871876
  4. Leproux A, Durkin A, Compton M, Cerussi AE, Gratton E, Tromberg BJ.
    Assessing tumor contrast in radiographically dense breast tissue using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopic Imaging (DOSI).
    Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(5): R89. PMCID: PMC3979060
  5. Cutrale F, Salih A, Gratton E.
    Spectral Phasor approach for fingerprinting of photo-activatable fluorescent proteins Dronpa, Kaede and KikGR.
    Method Appl Fluoresc. 2013; 1(3): 35001. PMCID: PMC3771857
  6. Chiu CL, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Cell matrix remodeling ability shown by image spatial correlation.
    J Biophys. 2013; 2013, 532030. PMCID: PMC3725897
  7. di Rienzo C, Gratton E, Beltram F, Cardarelli F.
    Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013; 110(30): 12307/12. PMCID: PMC3725058
  8. Skinner JP, Swift KM, Ruan Q, Perfetto S, Gratton E, Tetin S.
    Simplified confocal microscope for counting particles at low concentrations.
    Rev Sci Instrum. 2013; 84(7): 074301. PMCID: PMC3724729
  9. Altamore I, Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Dual channel detection of ultra low concentration of bacteria in real time by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Meas Sci Technol. 2013; 24(6): 065702. PMCID: PMC3770197
  10. Conway DE, Breckenridge MT, Hinde E, Gratton E, Chen CS, Schwartz MA.
    Fluid shear stress on endothelial cells modulates mechanical tension across VE-Cadherin and PECAM-1.
    Curr Biol. 2013; 23(11): 1024-1030. PMCID: PMC3676707
  11. Alexander BS, Gelb AW, Mantulin WW, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Yu Z, Lee C, Meng L.
    Impact of stepwise hyperventilation on cerebral tissue oxygen saturation in anesthetized patients: a mechanistic study.
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013; 57(5): 604-612. PMCID: PMC3992996
  12. Torno K, Wright BK, Jones MR, Digman MA, Gratton E, Phillips M.
    Real-time analysis of metabolic activity within lactobacillus acidophilus by phasor fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of NADH.
    Curr Microbiol. 2013; 66(4): 365-367.
  13. Golfetto O, Hinde E, Gratton E.
    Laurdan fluorescence lifetime discriminates Cholesterol content from changes in fluidity in living cell membranes.
    Biophys J. 2013; 104(6): 1238-1247. PMCID: PMC3602759
  14. Krasieva TB, Stringari C, Liu F, Sun CH, Kong Y, Balu M, Meyskens FL, Gratton E, Tromberg BJ.
    Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo.
    J Biomed Opt. 2013; 18(3): 31107. PMCID: PMC3595716
  15. Chen H, Gratton E.
    A practical implementation of multifrequency widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2013; 76(3): 282-289. PMCID: PMC3742114
  16. Dobrinskikh E, Lanzano L, Rachelson J, Cranston D, Moldovan R, Lei T, Gratton E, Doctor RB.
    Shank2 contributes to the apical retention and intracellular redistribution of NaPiIIa in OK cells.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013; 304(6): C561-573. PMCID: PMC3674434
  17. Andrews LM, Jones MR, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Detecting Pyronin Y labeled RNA transcripts in live cell microenvironments by phasor-FLIM analysis.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2013; 1(1): 015001. PMCID: PMC3929300
  18. Coppola S, Pozzi D, de Sanctis SC, Digman MA, Gratton E, Caracciolo G.
    Quantitative measurement of intracellular transport of nanocarriers by spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy.
    Methods Appl Fluoresc. 2013; 1(1): 015005. PMCID: PMC3871877
  19. Adu-Gyamfi E, Soni SP, Xue Y, Digman MA, Gratton E, Stahelin RV.
    The Ebola virus matrix protein penetrates into the plasma membrane: A key step in VP40 oligomerization and viral egress.
    J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(8): 5779-5789. PMCID: PMC3581432
  20. Coppola S, Cardarelli F, Pozzi D, Estrada LC, Digman MA, Gratton E, Bifone A, Marianecci C, Caracciolo G.
    The role of cytoskeleton networks on lipid-mediated delivery of DNA.
    Ther Deliv. 2013; 4(2): 191-202. PMCID: PMC3771858
  21. Li K, Markosyan RM, Zheng YM, Golfetto O, Bungart B, Li M, Ding S, He Y, Liang C, Lee JC, Gratton E, Cohen FS, Liu SL.
    IFITM Proteins restrict viral membrane hemifusion.
    PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(1): e1003124. PMCID: PMC3554583
  22. Hinde E, Digman MA, Hahn KM, Gratton E.
    Millisecond spatiotemporal dynamics of FRET biosensors by the pair correlation function and the phasor approach to FLIM.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013; 110(1): 135-140. PMCID: PMC3538204
  23. Andrews LM, Jones MR, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Spectral phasor analysis of Pyronin Y labeled RNA microenvironments in living cells.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2013; 4(1): 171-177. PMCID: PMC3539199
  24. de Torre DL, Gordon EA, Digman MA, Stakic M, Häberlein H, Gratton E, Caballero-George C.
    Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy in Live cells expressing endothelin ETA receptor.
    Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy. 2013; 7(1): 499-504.


  1. Hinde E, Cardarelli F, Chen A, Khine M, Gratton E.
    Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin.
    Epigenetics Chromatin. 2012; 5(1): 20. PMCID: PMC3570407
  2. Whiteside MD, Digman MA, Gratton E, Treseder KK.
    Organic nitrogen uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a boreal forest.
    Soil Biol Biochem. 2012; 55: 7-13. PMCID: PMC3871874
  3. Wright BK, Andrews LM, Jones MR, Stringari C, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Phasor-flim analysis of NADH distribution and localization in the nucleus of live progenitor myoblast cells.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2012; 75(12): 1717-1722. PMCID: PMC3635844
  4. Wigal SB, Polzonetti CM, Stehli A, Gratton E.
    Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication.
    J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(12): 127002. PMCID: PMC3518849
  5. Crosignani V, Dvornikov AS, Aguilar JS, Stringari C, Edwards R, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications.
    J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(11): 116023. PMCID: PMC3494495
  6. Adu-Gyamfi E, Digman MA, Gratton E, Stahelin RV.
    Single-particle tracking demonstrates that actin coordinates the movement of the Ebola virus matrix protein.
    Biophys J. 2012; 103(9): L41-L43. PMCID: PMC3491695
  7. Stringari C, Nourse JL, Flanagan LA, Gratton E.
    Phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy of free and protein-bound NADH reveals neural stem cell differentiation potential.
    PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48014. PMCID: PMC3489895
  8. Cutrale F, Gratton E.
    Inclined selective plane illumination microscopy adaptor for conventional microscopes.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2012; 75(11): 1461-1466. PMCID: PMC3742098
  9. Giral H, Cranston D, Lanzanò L, Caldas Y, Sutherland E, Rachelson J, Dobrinskikh E, Weinman EJ, Doctor RB, Gratton E, Levi M.
    NHE3 regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) modulates intestinal Na-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-2b) expression in apical microvilli.
    J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(42): 35047-35056. PMCID: PMC3471691
  10. Arnesano C, Santoro Y, Gratton E.
    Digital parallel frequency-domain spectroscopy for tissue imaging.
    J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(9): 096014. PMCID: PMC3442105
  11. Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Measurement of distance with the nanoscale precise imaging by rapid beam oscillation method.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2012; 75(9): 1253-1264. PMCID: PMC3426651
  12. Coppola S, Estrada LC, Digman MA, Pozzi D, Cardarelli F, Gratton E, Caracciolo G.
    Intracellular trafficking of cationic liposome-DNA complexes in living cells.
    Soft Matter. 2012; 8(30): 7919-7927. PMCID: PMC4138718
  13. Stringari C, Edwards RA, Pate KT, Waterman ML, Donovan PJ, Gratton E.
    Metabolic trajectory of cellular differentiation in small intestine by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.
    Sci Rep. 2012; 2: 568. PMCID: PMC3416911
  14. Wright BK, Andrews LM, Markham J, Jones MR, Stringar C, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    NADH distribution in live progenitor stem cells by phasor-fluorescence lifetime image microscopy.
    Biophys J. 2012; 103(1): L7-L9. PMCID: PMC3388207
  15. Cardarelli F, Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Capturing directed molecular motion in the nuclear pore complex of live cells.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012; 109(25): 9863-9868. PMCID: PMC3382504
  16. Adu-Gyamfi E, Digman MA, Gratton E, Stahelin RV.
    Investigation of Ebola VP40 assembly and oligomerization in live cells using number and brightness analysis.
    Biophys J. 2012; 102(11): 2517-2525. PMCID: PMC3368128
  17. James NG, Digman MA, Gratton E, Barylko B, Ding X, Albanesi JP, Goldberg MS, Jameson DM.
    Number and brightness analysis of LRRK2 oligomerization in live cells.
    Biophys J. 2012; 102(11): L41-L43. PMCID: PMC3368136
  18. Battisti A, Digman MA, Gratton E, Storti B, Beltram F, Bizzarri R.
    Intracellular pH measurements made simple by fluorescent protein probes and the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging.
    Chem Commun (Camb). 2012; 48(42): 5127-5129. PMCID: PMC3742097
  19. Stringari C, Gratton E, Sierra R, Donovan PJ.
    Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy.
    J Biomed Opt. 2012; 17(7): 046012. PMCID: PMC3381030
  20. Sánchez SA, Tricerri MA, Gratton E.
    Laurdan generalized polarization fluctuations measures membrane packing micro-heterogeneity in vivo.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012; 109(19): 7314-7319. PMCID: PMC3358851
  21. Montecinos-Franjola F, Ross JA, Sánchez SA, Brunet JE, Lagos R, Jameson DM, Monasterio O.
    Studies on the dissociation and urea-induced unfolding of FtsZ support the dimer nucleus polymerization mechanism.
    Biophys J. 2012; 102(9): 2176-2185. PMCID: PMC3341561
  22. Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Scanning image correlation spectroscopy.
    Bioessays. 2012; 34(5): 377-385. PMCID: PMC3635842
  23. Meng L, Gelb AW, Alexander BS, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Yu Z, Mantulin WW.
    Impact of phenylephrine administration on cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and blood volume is modulated by carbon dioxide in anaesthetized patients.
    Br J Anaesth. 2012; 108(5): 815-822. PMCID: PMC3325051
  24. Zhou S, Lo WC, Suhalim JL, Digman MA, Gratton E, Nie Q, Lander AD.
    Free extracellular diffusion creates the Dpp morphogen gradient of the Drosophila wing disc.
    Curr Biol. 2012; 22(8): 668-675. PMCID: PMC3338872
  25. Kniazeva E, Weidling JW, Singh R, Botvinick EL, Digman MA, Gratton E, Putnam AJ.
    Quantification of local matrix deformations and mechanical properties during capillary morphogenesis in 3D.
    Integr Biol (Camb). 2012; 4(4): 431-439. PMCID: PMC3771856
  26. Meng L, Mantulin WW, Alexander BS, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Yu Z, Laning K, Kain ZN, Cannesson M, Gelb AW.
    Head-up tilt and hyperventilation produce similar changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume: an observational comparison study using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy.
    Can J Anaesth. 2012; 59(4): 357-365. PMCID: PMC3371769
  27. Estrada LC, Gratton E.
    Spectroscopic properties of gold nanoparticles at the single-particle level in biological environments.
    Chemphyschem. 2012; 13(4): 1087-1092. PMCID: PMC4245151
  28. Hinde E, Digman MA, Welch C, Hahn KM, Gratton E.
    Biosensor Förster resonance energy transfer detection by the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2012; 75(3): 271-281. PMCID: PMC3523109
  29. Hinde E, Cardarelli F, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Changes in chromatin compaction during the cell cycle revealed by micrometer-scale measurement of molecular flow in the nucleus.
    Biophys J. 2012; 102(3): 691-697. PMCID: PMC3274830


  1. Sánchez SA, Gratton E, Zanocco AL, Lemp E, Gunther G.
    Sucrose monoester micelles size determined by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS).
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(12): e29278. PMCID: PMC3247245
  2. Stafford RL, Hinde E, Knight MJ, Pennella MA, Ear J, Digman MA, Gratton E, Bowie JU.
    Tandem SAM domain structure of human Caskin1: A presynaptic, self-assembling scaffold for CASK.
    Structure. 2011; 19(12): 1826-1836. PMCID: PMC3240820
  3. Estrada LC, Gratton E.
    3D nanometer images of biological fibers by directed motion of gold nanoparticles.
    Nano Lett. 2011; 11(11): 4656-4660. PMCID: PMC3220937
  4. Leproux A, Cerussi AE, Tanamai VW, Durkin AF, Compton M, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Impact of contralateral and ipsilateral reference tissue selection on self-referencing differential spectroscopy for breast cancer detection.
    J Biomed Opt. 2011; 16(11): 116019. PMCID: PMC3223514
  5. Lanzanò L, Lei T, Okamura K, Giral H, Caldas YA, Masihzadeh O, Gratton E, Levi M, Blaine J.
    Differential modulation of the molecular dynamics of the type IIa and IIc sodium phosphate cotransporters by parathyroid hormone.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011; 301(4): C850-861. PMCID: PMC3191571
  6. Labeed FH, Lu J, Mulhall HJ, Marchenko SA, Hoettges KF, Estrada LC, Lee AP, Hughes MP, Flanagan LA.
    Biophysical characteristics reveal neural stem cell differentiation potential.
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(9): e25458. PMCID: PMC3184132
  7. Crosignani V, Dvornikov AS, Gratton E.
    Enhancement of imaging depth in turbid media using a wide area detector.
    J Biophotonics. 2011; 4(9): 592-599. PMCID: PMC4245154
  8. Santoro Y, Leproux A, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Breast cancer spatial heterogeneity in near-infrared spectra and the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response.
    J Biomed Opt. 2011; 16(9): 097007. PMCID: PMC3203125
  9. Hinde E, Cardarelli F.
    Measuring the flow of molecules in cells.
    Biophys Rev. 2011; 3(3): 119-129.
  10. Wolf U, Toronov VY, Choi JH, Gupta R, Michalos A, Gratton E, Wolf M.
    Correlation of functional and resting state connectivity of cerebral oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration changes measured by near-infrared spectrophotometry.
    J Biomed Opt. 2011; 16(8): 087013. PMCID: PMC3170400
  11. Cardarelli F, Lanzanò L, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of intact nuclear pore complexes.
    Biophys J. 2011; 101(4): L27-29. PMCID: PMC3175086
  12. Stringari C, Cinquin A, Cinquin O, Digman MA, Donovan PJ, Gratton E.
    Phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime microscopy distinguishes different metabolic states of germ cells in a live tissue.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011; 108(33): 13582-13587. PMCID: PMC3158156
  13. Marchini C, Pozzi D, Montani M, Alfonsi C, Amici A, de Sanctis SC, Digman MA, Sánchez SA, Gratton E, Amenitsch H, Fabbretti A, Gualerzi CO, Caracciolo G.
    Role of temperature-independent lipoplex-cell membrane interactions in the efficiency boost of multicomponent lipoplexes.
    Cancer Gene Ther. 2011; 18(8): 543-552. PMCID: PMC3940159
  14. Ramella NA, Rimoldi OJ, Prieto ED, Schinella GR, Sánchez SA, Jaureguiberry MS, Vela ME, Ferreira ST, Tricerri MA.
    Human apolipoprotein A-I-derived amyloid: its association with atherosclerosis.
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(7): e22532. PMCID: PMC3139661
  15. Sánchez SA, Bakás L, Gratton E, Herlax V.
    Alpha Hemolysin induces an increase of Erythrocytes Calcium: A FLIM 2-photon phasor analysis approach.
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(6): e21127. PMCID: PMC3116868
  16. Itano MS, Neumann AK, Liu P, Zhang F, Gratton E, Parak WJ, Thompson NL, Jacobson KA.
    DC-SIGN and influenza Hemagglutinin dynamics in plasma membrane microdomains are markedly different.
    Biophys J. 2011; 100(11): 2662-2670. PMCID: PMC3117154
  17. Meng L, Cannesson M, Alexander BS, Yu Z, Kain ZN, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Mantulin WW.
    Effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine bolus treatment on cerebral oxygenation in anaesthetized patients.
    Br J Anaesth. 2011; 107(2): 209-217. PMCID: PMC3136202
  18. Lanzanò L, Digman MA, Fwu P, Giral H, Levi M, Gratton E.
    Nanometer-scale imaging by the modulation tracking method.
    J Biophotonics. 2011; 4(6): 415-424. PMCID: PMC3393040
  19. Kotlarchyk MA, Shreim SG, Alvarez-Elizondo MB, Estrada LC, Singh R, Valdevit L, Kniazeva E, Gratton E, Putnam AJ, Botvinick EL.
    Concentration independent modulation of local micromechanics in a fibrin gel.
    PLoS One. 2011; 6(5): e20201. PMCID: PMC3100350
  20. Caracciolo G, Pozzi D, Capriotti AL, Marianecci C, Carafa M, Marchini C, Montani M, Amici A, Amenitsch H, Digman MA, Gratton E, Sánchez SA, Laganà A.
    Factors determining the superior performance of lipid/DNA/protammine nanoparticles over lipoplexes.
    J Med Chem. 2011; 54(12): 4160-4171.
  21. Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Lessons in fluctuation correlation spectroscopy.
    Ann Rev Phys Chem. 2011; 62: 645-668. PMCID: PMC3576135
  22. Sánchez SA, Gunther G, Tricerri MA, Gratton E.
    Methyl-β-Cyclodextrins preferentially remove cholesterol from the liquid disordered phase in giant unilamellar vesicles.
    J Membr Biol. 2011; 241(1): 1-10. PMCID: PMC3082695
  23. Giral H, Lanzanò L, Caldas Y, Blaine J, Verlander JW, Lei T, Gratton E, Levi M.
    Role of PDZK1 protein in apical membrane expression of renal sodium-coupled phosphate transporters.
    J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(17): 15032-15042. PMCID: PMC3083164
  24. Hinde E, Cardarelli F, Digman MA, Kershner A, Kimble J, Gratton E.
    The impact of mitotic versus interphase chromatin architecture on the molecular flow of EGFP by pair correlation analysis.
    Biophys J. 2011; 100(7): 1829-1836. PMCID: PMC3072664
  25. Moens PDJ, Gratton E, Salvemini IL.
    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, raster image correlation spectroscopy, and number and brightness on a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope with analog detectors (Nikon C1).
    Microsc Res Tech. 2011; 74(4): 377-388. PMCID: PMC3001136
  26. Azartash K, Kwan JT, Paugh JR, Nguyen AL, Jester JV, Gratton E.
    Pre-corneal tear film thickness in humans measured with a novel technique.
    Mol Vis. 2011; 17: 756-767. PMCID: PMC3081798
  27. Blaine J, Lanzanò L, Girala H, Caldasa Y, Levia M, Grattona E, Moldovana R, Lei T.
    Dynamic imaging of the sodium phosphate cotransporters.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2011; 18(2): 145-150. PMCID: PMC3220941
  28. Behne MJ, Sánchez SA, Barry NP, Kirschner N, Meyer W, Mauro TM, Moll I, Gratton E.
    Major translocation of calcium upon epidermal barrier insult: imaging and quantification via FLIM/Fourier vector analysis.
    Arch Dermatol Res. 2011; 303(2): 103-115. PMCID: PMC4548958
  29. Gratton E.
    Deeper tissue imaging with total detection.
    Science. 2011; 331(6020): 1016-1017.
  30. Chen B, Estrada LC, Hellriegel C, Gratton E.
    Nanometer-scale optical imaging of collagen fibers using gold nanoparticles.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2011; 2(3): 511-519. PMCID: PMC3047357
  31. Ross JA, Digman MA, Wang L, Gratton E, Albanesi JP, Jameson DM.
    Oligomerization state of Dynamin 2 in cell membranes using TIRF and number and brightness analysis.
    Biophys J. 2011; 100(3): L15-17. PMCID: PMC3030261
  32. Choi CK, Zareno J, Digman MA, Gratton E, Horwitz AR.
    Cross-correlated fluctuation analysis reveals phosphorylation-regulated Paxillin-FAK complexes in nascent adhesions.
    Biophys J. 2011; 100(3): 583-592. PMCID: PMC3030238
  33. Vetri V, Ossato G, Militello V, Digman MA, Leone M, Gratton E.
    Fluctuation methods to study protein aggregation in live cells: Concanavalin A oligomers formation.
    Biophys J. 2011; 100(3): 774-783. PMCID: PMC3030242


  1. Kim SA, Sanabria H, Digman MA, Gratton E, Schwille P, Zipfel WR, Waxham MN.
    Quantifying translational mobility in neurons: comparison between current optical techniques.
    J Neurosci. 2010; 30(49): 16409-16416. PMCID: PMC3003925
  2. Kuo Wj, Digman MA, Lander AD.
    Heparan sulfate acts as a BMP co-receptor by facilitating ligand-induced receptor hetero-oligomerization.
    Mol Biol Cell. 2010; 21(22): 4028-4041. PMCID: PMC2982130
  3. Fu CC, Ossato G, Long M, Digman MA, Gopinathan A, Lee LP, Gratton E, Khine M.
    Bimetallic nanopetals for thousand-fold fluorescence enhancements.
    Appl Phys Lett. 2010; 97(20): 203101.
  4. Sánchez SA.
    Book Review: Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy. B R Masters and P T C So. Oxford University Press, 2008.
    Microsc Microanal. 2010; 16(6): 842.
  5. Azartash K, Shy CjN, Flynn K, Jester JV, Gratton E.
    Non-invasive in vivo measurement of the tear film using spatial autocorrelation in a live mammal model.
    Biomed Opt Express. 2010; 1(4): 1127-1137. PMCID: PMC3018089
  6. Rossow MJ, Sasaki JM, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Raster image correlation spectroscopy in live cells.
    Nat Protoc. 2010; 5(11): 1761-1774. PMCID: PMC3089972
  7. Presman DM, Alvarez LD, Levi V, Eduardo S, Digman MA, Martí MA, Veleiro AS, Burton G, Pecci A.
    Insights on glucocorticoid receptor activity modulation through the binding of rigid steroids.
    PLoS One. 2010; 5(10): e13279. PMCID: PMC2952596
  8. Hinde E, Cardarelli F, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    In vivo pair correlation analysis of EGFP intranuclear diffusion reveals DNA-dependent molecular flow.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010; 107(38): 16560-16565. PMCID: PMC2944750
  9. Celli A, Gratton E.
    Dynamics of lipid domain formation: fluctuation analysis.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1798(7): 1368-1376. PMCID: PMC2883005
  10. Sánchez SA, Tricerri MA, Ossato G, Gratton E.
    Lipid packing determines protein-membrane interactions: challenges for apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoproteins.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1798(7): 1399-1408. PMCID: PMC2883020
  11. Lim RS, Kratzer A, Barry NP, Miyazaki-Anzai S, Miyazaki M, Mantulin WW, Levi M, Potma EO, Tromberg BJ.
    Multimodal CARS microscopy determination of the impact of diet on macrophage infiltration and lipid accumulation on plaque formation in ApoE-deficient mice.
    J Lipid Res. 2010; 51(7): 1729-37. PMCID: PMC2882730
  12. Ossato G, Digman MA, Aiken C, Lukacsovich T, Marsh JL, Gratton E.
    A two-step path to inclusion formation of huntingtin peptides revealed by number and brightness analysis.
    Biophys J. 2010; 98(12): 3078-3085. PMCID: PMC2884247
  13. Cardarelli F, Gratton E.
    In vivo imaging of single-molecule translocation through nuclear pore complexes by pair correlation functions.
    PLoS One. 2010; 5(5): e10475. PMCID: PMC2862743
  14. Rossow MJ, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow.
    J Biomed Opt. 2010; 15(2): 026003. PMCID: PMC2869368
  15. Jaureguiberry MS, Tricerri MA, Sánchez SA, Garda HA, Finarelli GS, Gonzalez MC, Rimoldi OJ.
    Membrane organization and regulation of cellular Cholesterol homeostasis.
    J Membr Biol. 2010; 234(3): 183-194. PMCID: PMC2868589
  16. Celli A, Sánchez SA, Behne MJ, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Mauro TM.
    The epidermal Ca(2+) gradient: measurement using the phasor representation of fluorescent lifetime imaging.
    Biophys J. 2010; 98(5): 911-921. PMCID: PMC2830439
  17. Yoon Y, Tong J, Lee PJ, Albanese A, Bhardwaj N, Källberg M, Digman MA, Lu H, Gratton E, Shin YK, Cho W.
    Molecular basis of the potent membrane remodeling activity of the epsin1 ENTH domain.
    J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(1): 531-540. PMCID: PMC2804201
  18. Kukreti S, Cerussi AE, Tanamai W, Hsiang D, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Characterization of metabolic differences between benign and malignant tumors: high-spectral-resolution diffuse optical spectroscopy.
    Radiology. 2010; 254(1): 277-284. PMCID: PMC2797652


  1. Tanner K, Ferris DR, Lanzanò L, Mandefro B, Mantulin WW, Gardiner DM, Rugg EL, Gratton E.
    Coherent movement of cell layers during wound healing by image correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2009; 97(7): 2098-2106. PMCID: PMC2756390
  2. Katayama Y, Burkacky O, Meyer M, Bräuchle C, Gratton E, Lamb DC.
    Real-time nanomicroscopy via three-dimensional single-particle tracking.
    ChemPhysChem. 2009; 10(14): 2458-2464. PMCID: PMC2857558
  3. Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, applications in systems biology.
    WIREs Syst Biol Med. 2009; 1(2): 273-282. PMCID: PMC3086279
  4. Portolés MJL, Nieto FR, Soria DB, Amalvy JI, Peruzzo PJ, Mártire DO, Kotler M, Holub O, Gonzalez MC.
    Photophysical properties of blue-emitting silicon nanoparticles.
    J Phys Chem C. 2009; 113(31): 13694-13702. PMCID: PMC3410643
  5. Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Imaging barriers to diffusion by pair correlation functions.
    Biophys J. 2009; 97(2): 665-673. PMCID: PMC2711318
  6. Krishnan K, Holub O, Gratton E, Clayton AHA, Cody S, Moens PDJ.
    Profilin interaction with phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate destabilizes the membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles.
    Biophys J. 2009; 96(12): 5112-5121. PMCID: PMC2712054
  7. Gielen E, Smisdom N, vandeVen MJ, de Clercq B, Gratton E, Digman MA, Rigo JM, Hofkens J, Engelborghs Y, Ameloot M.
    Measuring diffusion of lipid-like probes in artificial and natural membranes by raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS): use of a commercial laser-scanning microscope with analog detection.
    Langmuir. 2009; 25(9): 5209-5218. PMCID: PMC2728053
  8. Henning MF, Sánchez SA, Bakás L.
    Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 383(1): 22-26. PMCID: PMC2865696
  9. Caracciolo G, Digman MA, Gratton E, Sánchez SA, Caminiti R.
    Efficient escape from endosomes determines the superior efficiency of multicomponent lipoplexes.
    J Phys Chem B. 2009; 113(15): 4995-4997. PMCID: PMC2673460
  10. Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Analysis of diffusion and binding in cells using the RICS approach.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2009; 72(4): 323-332. PMCID: PMC4364519
  11. Tyler KM, Fridberg A, Toriello KM, Olson CL, Cieslak JA, Hazlett TL, Engman DM.
    Flagellar membrane localization via association with lipid rafts.
    J Cell Sci. 2009; 122(Pt 6): 859-866. PMCID: PMC2714428
  12. Rossow MJ, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy measurements of flow demonstrated in microfluidic channels.
    J Biomed Opt. 2009; 14(2): 024014. PMCID: PMC2702990
  13. Digman MA, Wiseman PW, Choi CK, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Stoichiometry of molecular complexes at adhesions in living cells.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009; 106(7): 2170-2175. PMCID: PMC2630200
  14. Gratton E, Digman MA.
    One photon up, one photon down.
    Nat Biotechnol. 2009; 27(2): 147-148.
  15. Toro CA, Sánchez SA, Zanocco A, Lemp E, Gratton E, Gunther G.
    Solubilization of lipid bilayers by myristyl sucrose ester: effect of cholesterol and phospholipid head group size.
    Chem Phys Lipids. 2009; 157(2): 104-112. PMCID: PMC2868593
  16. Digman MA, Wiseman PW, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Detecting protein complexes in living cells from laser scanning confocal image sequences by the cross correlation raster image spectroscopy method.
    Biophys J. 2009; 96(2): 707-716. PMCID: PMC2716688


  1. Kukreti S, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Intrinsic near-infrared spectroscopic markers of breast tumors.
    Dis Markers. 2008; 25(6): 281-290. PMCID: PMC2732199
  2. Sanabria H, Digman MA, Gratton E, Waxham MN.
    Spatial diffusivity and availability of intracellular Calmodulin.
    Biophys J. 2008; 95(12): 6002-6015. PMCID: PMC2599858
  3. Watson NB, Nelson E, Digman MA, Thornburg JA, Alphenaar BW, McGregor WG.
    RAD18 and associated proteins are immobilized in nuclear foci in human cells entering S-phase with ultraviolet light-induced damage.
    Mutat Res. 2008; 648(1-2): 23-31. PMCID: PMC2610409
  4. Unruh JR, Gratton E.
    Analysis of molecular concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation data with an electron multiplied CCD camera.
    Biophys J. 2008; 95(11): 5385-5398. PMCID: PMC2586556
  5. Barreiro O, Zamai M, Yáñez-Mó M, Tejera E, López-Romero P, Monk PN, Gratton E, Caiolfa VR, Sánchez-Madrid F.
    Endothelial adhesion receptors are recruited to adherent leukocytes by inclusion in preformed tetraspanin nanoplatforms.
    J Cell Biol. 2008; 183(3): 527-542. PMCID: PMC2575792
  6. Fratoddi I, Gohlke C, Cametti C, Diociaiuti M, Russo MV.
    Self-assembly of nanostructured polymetallaynes.
    Polymer. 2008; 49(15): 3211-3216.
  7. Malengo G, Andolfo A, Sidenius N, Gratton E, Zamai M, Caiolfa VR.
    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and photon counting histogram on membrane proteins: functional dynamics of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.
    J Biomed Opt. 2008; 13(3): 031215. PMCID: PMC2718687
  8. Levi V, Gratton E.
    Chromatin dynamics during interphase explored by single-particle tracking.
    Chromosome Res. 2008; 16(3): 439-449. PMCID: PMC2701671
  9. Kwok S, Lee CY, Sánchez SA, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Hayashi Y.
    Genetically encoded probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging of CaMKII activity.
    Biochem Biophys Res Comm. 2008; 369(2): 519-525. PMCID: PMC2396457
  10. Digman MA, Brown CM, Horwitz AR, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Paxillin dynamics measured during adhesion assembly and disassembly by correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(7): 2819-2831. PMCID: PMC2267137
  11. Garcia-Marcos A, Sánchez SA, Parada P, Eid JS, Jameson DM, Remacha M, Gratton E, Ballesta JPG.
    Yeast ribosomal stalk heterogeneity in vivo shown by two-photon FCS and molecular brightness analysis.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(7): 2884-2890. PMCID: PMC2267128
  12. Digman MA, Dalal RB, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Mapping the number of molecules and brightness in the laser scanning microscope.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(6): 2320-2332. PMCID: PMC2257897
  13. Raub CB, Unruh JR, Suresh V, Krasieva TB, Lindmo T, Gratton E, Tromberg BJ, George SC.
    Image correlation spectroscopy of multiphoton images correlates with collagen mechanical properties.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(6): 2361-2373. PMCID: PMC2257909
  14. Colyer RA, Lee CY, Gratton E.
    A novel fluorescence lifetime imaging system that optimizes photon efficiency.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2008; 71(3): 201-213.
  15. Sánchez SA, Tricerri MA, Gratton E.
    Detecting cholesterol changes in lipid bilayers.
    BioWorld Europe. 2008; 1: 8-11.
  16. Digman MA, Caiolfa VR, Zamai M, Gratton E.
    The phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging analysis.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(2): L14-16. PMCID: PMC2157251
  17. Fiorini R, Ragni L, Ambrosi S, Littarru GP, Gratton E, Hazlett TL.
    Fluorescence studies of the interactions of ubiquinol-10 with liposomes.
    Photochem Photobiol. 2008; 84(1): 209-214.
  18. Dalal RB, Digman MA, Horwitz AR, Vetri V, Gratton E.
    Determination of particle number and brightness using a laser scanning confocal microscope operating in the analog mode.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2008; 71(1): 69-81.
  19. Celli A, Beretta S, Gratton E.
    Phase fluctuations on the micron-submicron scale in GUVs composed of a binary lipid mixture.
    Biophys J. 2008; 94(1): 104-116. PMCID: PMC2134868
  20. Brown CM, Dalal RB, Hebert B, Digman MA, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for measuring fast protein dynamics and concentrations with a commercial laser scanning confocal microscope.
    J Microsc. 2008; 229(1): 78-91. PMCID: PMC3690660


  1. Caiolfa VR, Zamai M, Malengo G, Andolfo A, Madsen CD, Sutin JDB, Digman MA, Gratton E, Blasi F, Sidenius N.
    Monomer–dimer dynamics and distribution of GPI-anchored uPAR are determined by cell surface protein assemblies.
    J Cell Biol. 2007; 179(5): 1067-1082. PMCID: PMC2099195
  2. Olopade CO, Mensah E, Gupta R, Huo D, Picchiett DL, Gratton E, Michalos A.
    Noninvasive determination of brain tissue oxygenation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea: a near-infrared spectroscopic approach.
    Sleep. 2007; 30(12): 1747-1755. PMCID: PMC2276122
  3. Wolf U, Wolf M, Choi JH, Paunescu LA, Michalos A, Gratton E.
    Regional differences of hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human calf muscle detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry.
    J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2007; 18(9): 1094-1101.
  4. Gatto R, Hoffman W, Paisansathan C, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Charbel FT.
    Effect of age on brain oxygenation regulation during changes in position.
    J Neurosci Methods. 2007; 164(2): 308-311.
  5. Sánchez SA, Tricerri MA, Gratton E.
    Interaction of high density lipoprotein particles with membranes containing cholesterol.
    J Lipid Res. 2007; 48(8): 1689-1700.
  6. Levi V, Gratton E.
    Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles.
    Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007; 48(1): 1-15.
  7. Ermolenko DN, Spiegel PC, Majumdar ZK, Hickerson RP, Clegg RM, Noller HF.
    The antibiotic viomycin traps the ribosome in an intermediate state of translocation.
    Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007; 14: 493-497.
  8. Holub O, Seufferheld MJ, Gohlke C, Govindjee, Heiss GJ, Clegg RM.
    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of chlamydomonas reinhardtii: non-photochemical quenching mutants and the effect of photosynthetic inhibitors on the slow chlorophyll fluorescence transient.
    J Microsc. 2007; 226(2): 90-120.
  9. Ermolenko DN, Majumdar ZK, Hickerson RP, Spiegel PC, Clegg RM, Noller HF.
    Observation of intersubunit movement of the ribosome in solution using FRET.
    J Mol Biol. 2007; 370(3): 530-540.
  10. Kukreti S, Cerussi AE, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Intrinsic tumor biomarkers revealed by novel double-differential spectroscopic analysis of near-infrared spectra.
    J Biomed Opt. 2007; 12(2): 020509.
  11. Boens N, Qin W, Basari N, Hofkens J, Ameloot M, Pouget J, Lefèvre JP, Valeur B, Gratton E, vandeVen MJ, Silva N Jr, Engelborghs Y, Willaert K, Sillen A, Rumbles G, Phillips D, Visser AJWG, van Hoek A, Lakowicz JR, Malak H, Gryczynski I, Szabo AG, Krajcarski DT, Tamai N, Miura A.
    Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy.
    Anal Chem. 2007; 79(5): 2137-49.
  12. Calderon-Arnulphi M, Alaraj AM, Amin-Hanjani S, Mantulin WW, Polzonetti CM, Gratton E, Charbel FT.
    Detection of cerebral ischemia in neurovascular surgery using quantitative frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy.
    J Neurosurg. 2007; 106(2): 283-290.
  13. Tanner K, Beitel E, D'Amico E, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Effects of vasodilation on intrinsic optical signals in the mammalian brain: a phantom study.
    J Biomed Opt. 2007; 11(6): 064020.


  1. Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ.
    Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin.
    Free Radic Biol Med. 2006; 41(8): 1205-12.
  2. Nicolini C, Celli A, Gratton E, Winter R.
    Pressure tuning of the morphology of heterogeneous lipid vesicles: a two-photon-excitation fluorescence microscopy study.
    Biophys J. 2006; 91(8): 2936-42. PMCID: PMC1578477
  3. Eckhoff DA, Stuart JN, Sutin JDB, Sweedler JV, Gratton E.
    Capillary electrophoresis of ultrasmall carboxylate functionalized silicon nanoparticles.
    J Chem Phys. 2006; 125(8): 081103.
  4. Ragan TM, Huang H, So PTC, Gratton E.
    3D particle tracking on a two-photon microscope.
    J Fluoresc. 2006; 16(3): 325-36.
  5. Lee NY, Hazlett TL, Koland JG.
    Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain.
    Protein Sci. 2006; 15(5): 1142-52. PMCID: PMC2242510
  6. Rogozhina EV, Eckhoff DA, Gratton E, Braun PV.
    Carboxyl functionalization of ultrasmall luminescent silicon nanoparticles through thermal hydrosilylation.
    J Mater Chem. 2006; 16: 1421-1430.
  7. Nicolini C, Baranski J, Schlummer S, Palomo J, Lumbierres-Burgues M, Kahms M, Kuhlmann J, Sánchez SA, Gratton E, Waldmann H, Winter R.
    Visualizing association of N-ras in lipid microdomains: influence of domain structure and interfacial adsorption.
    J Am Chem Soc. 2006; 128(1): 192-201.
  8. Simonson PD, D'Amico E, Gratton E.
    Modulation of an optical needle's reflectivity alters the average photon path through scattering media.
    J Biomed Opt. 2006; 11(1): 014023.
  9. Levi V, Gelfand VI, Serpinskaya AS, Gratton E.
    Melanosomes transported by myosin-V in Xenopus melanophores perform slow 35 nm steps.
    Biophys J. 2006; 90(1): L07-9. PMCID: PMC1367043
  10. Levi V, Serpinskaya AS, Gratton E, Gelfand VI.
    Organelle transport along microtubules in Xenopus melanophores: evidence for cooperation between multiple motors.
    Biophys J. 2006; 90(1): 318-27. PMCID: PMC1367030


  1. Gokhale NA, Abraham A, Digman MA, Gratton E, Cho W.
    Phosphoinositide specificity of and mechanism of lipid domain formation by annexin A2-p11 heterotetramer.
    J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(52): 42831-40.
  2. Redford GI, Majumdar ZK, Sutin JDB, Clegg RM.
    Properties of microfluidic turbulent mixing revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging.
    J Chem Phys. 2005; 123(22): 224504.
  3. Levi V, Ruan Q, Plutz M, Belmont AS, Gratton E.
    Chromatin dynamics in interphase cells revealed by tracking in a two-photon excitation microscope.
    Biophys J. 2005; 89(6): 4275-85. PMCID: PMC1366992
  4. Majumdar ZK, Sutin JDB, Clegg RM.
    Microfabricated continuous-flow, turbulent, microsecond mixer.
    Rev Sci Instrum. 2005; 76(12): 125103.
  5. Hickerson RP, Majumdar ZK, Baucom A, Clegg RM, Noller HF.
    Measurement of internal movements within the 30 S ribosomal subunit using Förster resonance energy transfer.
    J Mol Biol. 2005; 354(2): 459-72.
  6. Tanner K, D'Amico E, Kaczmarowski A, Kukreti S, Malpeli JG, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Spectrally resolved neurophotonics: a case report of hemodynamics and vascular components in the mammalian brain.
    J Biomed Opt. 2005; 10(6): 064009.
  7. Eckhoff DA, Sutin JDB, Clegg RM, Gratton E, Rogozhina EV, Braun PV.
    Optical characterization of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles prepared through electrochemical dispersion of bulk Si.
    J Phys Chem B. 2005; 109(42): 19786-97.
  8. Majumdar ZK, Hickerson RP, Noller HF, Clegg RM.
    Measurements of internal distance changes of the 30S ribosome using FRET with multiple donor-acceptor pairs: quantitative spectroscopic methods.
    J Mol Biol. 2005; 351(5): 1123-45.
  9. Redford GI, Clegg RM.
    Polar plot representation for frequency-domain analysis of fluorescence lifetimes.
    J Fluoresc. 2005; 15(5): 805-15.
  10. Digman MA, Brown CM, Sengupta P, Wiseman PW, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Measuring fast dynamics in solutions and cells with a laser scanning microscope.
    Biophys J. 2005; 89(2): 1317-27. PMCID: PMC1366616
  11. Arnulphi C, Sánchez SA, Tricerri MA, Gratton E, Jonas A.
    Interaction of human apolipoprotein A-I with model membranes exhibiting lipid domains.
    Biophys J. 2005; 89(1): 285-95. PMCID: PMC1366526
  12. Sánchez SA, Gratton E.
    Lipid-protein interactions revealed by two-photon microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Acc Chem Res. 2005; 38(6): 469-77.
  13. Stahelin RV, Digman MA, Medkova M, Ananthanarayanan B, Melowic HR, Rafter JD, Cho W.
    Diacylglycerol-induced membrane targeting and activation of protein kinase Cε. Mechanistic differences between protein kinases Cδ and Cε.
    J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(20): 19784-19793.
  14. Digman MA, Sengupta P, Wiseman PW, Brown CM, Horwitz AR, Gratton E.
    Fluctuation correlation spectroscopy with a laser-scanning microscope: exploiting the hidden time structure.
    Biophys J. 2005; 88(5): L33-6. PMCID: PMC1305524
  15. Tricerri MA, Toledo JD, Sánchez SA, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Jonas A, Garda HA.
    Visualization and analysis of apolipoprotein A-I interaction with binary phospholipid bilayers.
    J Lipid Res. 2005; 46(4): 669-78.
  16. Levi V, Ruan Q, Gratton E.
    3-D particle tracking in a two-photon microscope: application to the study of molecular dynamics in cells.
    Biophys J. 2005; 88(4): 2919-28. PMCID: PMC1305386
  17. Gratton E, Toronov VY, Wolf U, Wolf M, Webb A.
    Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light.
    J Biomed Opt. 2005; 10(1): 11008.


  1. Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng MA, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M.
    Partitioning of NaPi cotransporter in cholesterol-, sphingomyelin-, and glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane domains modulates NaPi protein diffusion, clustering, and activity.
    J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(47): 49160-71.
  2. Barcellona ML, Gammon S, Hazlett TL, Digman MA, Gratton E.
    Polarized fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of DNA-DAPI complexes.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2004; 65(4-5): 205-17.
  3. Masters BR, So PTC, Buehler C, Barry NP, Sutin JDB, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging.
    J Biomed Opt. 2004; 9(6): 1265-70.
  4. Safonova LP, Michalos A, Wolf U, Wolf M, Hueber DM, Choi JH, Gupta R, Polzonetti CM, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Age-correlated changes in cerebral hemodynamics assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2004; 39(3): 207-25.
  5. Hart AJ, Slocum AH, Sutin JDB.
    Segmented and shielded structures for reduction of thermal expansion-induced tilt errors.
    Precision Eng. 2004; 28(4): 443-458.
  6. Czeslik C, Jackler G, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Steitz R, Wittemann A, Ballauff M.
    Salt-induced protein resistance of polyelectrolyte brushes studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and neutron reflectometry.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2004; 6: 5557-5563.
  7. Ruan Q, Cheng MA, Levi M, Gratton E, Mantulin WW.
    Spatial-temporal studies of membrane dynamics: scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SFCS).
    Biophys J. 2004; 87(2): 1260-7. PMCID: PMC1304464
  8. Janosch S, Nicolini C, Ludolph B, Peters C, Völkert M, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Waldmann H, Winter R.
    Partitioning of dual-lipidated peptides into membrane microdomains: lipid sorting vs peptide aggregation.
    J Am Chem Soc. 2004; 126(24): 7496-503.
  9. Borovikov YS, Dedova IV, Remedios CGd, Vikhoreva NN, Vikhorev PG, Avrova SV, Hazlett TL, van der Meer BW.
    Fluorescence depolarization of actin filaments in reconstructed myofibers: the effect of S1 or pPDM-S1 on movements of distinct areas of actin.
    Biophys J. 2004; 86(5): 3020-9. PMCID: PMC1304168
  10. Rao S, Sutin JDB, Clegg RM, Gratton E, Nayfeh MH, Habbal S, Tsolakidis A, Martin RM.
    Excited states of tetrahedral single-core Si29 nanoparticles.
    Phys Rev B. 2004; 69(20): 205319.
  11. Hohng S, Wilson TJ, Tan E, Clegg RM, Lilley DMJ, Ha T.
    Conformational flexibility of four-way junctions in RNA.
    J Mol Biol. 2004; 336(1): 69-79.
  12. Czeslik C, Jansen RP, Ballauff M, Wittemann A, Royer CA, Gratton E, Hazlett TL.
    Mechanism of protein binding to spherical polyelectrolyte brushes studied in situ using two-photon excitation fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Phys Rev E. 2004; 69(2): 021401.
  13. Lee EH, Faulhaber D, Hanson KM, Ding W, Peters S, Kodali S, Granstein RD.
    Dietary Lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression.
    J Invest Dermatol. 2004; 122(2): 510-517.
  14. Clegg RM.
    The vital contributions of Perrin and Förster.
    Biophotonics Int. 2004; 11(9): 42-45.
  15. Choi JH, Wolf M, Toronov VY, Wolf U, Polzonetti CM, Hueber DM, Safonova LP, Gupta R, Michalos A, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach.
    J Biomed Opt. 2004; 9(1): 221-9.
  16. Kis-Petiková K, Gratton E.
    Distance measurement by circular scanning of the excitation beam in the two-photon microscope.
    Microsc Res Tech. 2004; 63(1): 34-49.
  17. Dedova IV, Avrova SV, Vikhoreva NN, Vikhorev PG, Hazlett TL, van der Meer BW, Remedios CGd, Borovikov YS.
    Conformational changes of actin induced by strong or weak myosin subfragment-1 binding.
    Tsitologiia. 2004; 46(8): 719-34.
  18. Sánchez SA, Brunet JE, Jameson DM, Lagos R, Monasterio O.
    Tubulin equilibrium unfolding followed by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Protein Sci. 2004; 13(1): 81-88. PMCID: PMC2286518
  19. Morren G, Wolf U, Lemmerling P, Wolf M, Choi JH, Gratton E, de Lathauwer L, van Huffel S.
    Detection of fast neuronal signals in the motor cortex from functional near infrared spectroscopy measurements using independent component analysis.
    Med Biol Eng Comput. 2004; 42(1): 92-99.


  1. Gaus K, Gratton E, Kable EPW, Jones AS, Gelissen I, Kritharides L, Jessup W.
    Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100(26): 15554-9. PMCID: PMC307606
  2. Hanson KM, Clegg RM.
    Bioconvertible vitamin antioxidants improve sunscreen photoprotection against UV-induced reactive oxygen species.
    J Cosmet Sci. 2003; 54(6): 589-598.
  3. Toronov VY, D'Amico E, Hueber DM, Gratton E, Barbieri BB, Webb A.
    Optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio of frequency-domain instrumentation for near-infrared spectro-imaging of the human brain.
    Opt Express. 2003; 11(21): 2717-2729.
  4. Müller JD, Gratton E.
    High-pressure fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2003; 85(4): 2711-9. PMCID: PMC1303495
  5. Campanini B, Raboni S, Vaccari S, Zhang L, Cook PF, Hazlett TL, Mozzarelli A, Bettati S.
    Surface-exposed tryptophan residues are essential for O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase structure, function, and stability.
    J Biol Chem. 2003; 278(39): 37511-9.
  6. Tan E, Wilson TJ, Nahas MK, Clegg RM, Lilley DMJ, Ha T.
    A four-way junction accelerates hairpin ribozyme folding via a discrete intermediate.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100(16): 9308-13. PMCID: PMC170914
  7. Toronov VY, Walker SA, Gupta R, Choi JH, Gratton E, Hueber DM, Webb A.
    The roles of changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentration and regional cerebral blood volume in the fMRI BOLD signal.
    NeuroImage. 2003; 19(4): 1521-31.
  8. Wolf M, Wolf U, Choi JH, Toronov VY, Paunescu LA, Michalos A, Gratton E.
    Fast cerebral functional signal in the 100-ms range detected in the visual cortex by frequency-domain near-infrared spectrophotometry.
    Psychophysiology. 2003; 40(4): 521-8.
  9. Gratton E, Breusegem SY, Sutin JDB, Ruan Q, Barry NP.
    Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the two-photon microscope: time-domain and frequency-domain methods.
    J Biomed Opt. 2003; 8(3): 381-90.
  10. Behne MJ, Barry NP, Hanson KM, Aronchik I, Clegg RM, Gratton E, Feingold K, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Mauro TM.
    Neonatal development of the stratum corneum pH gradient: localization and mechanisms leading to emergence of optimal barrier function.
    J Invest Dermatol. 2003; 120(6): 998-1006.
  11. Wolf U, Wolf M, Choi JH, Levi M, Choudhury D, Hull S, Coussirat D, Paunescu LA, Safonova LP, Michalos A, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry.
    J Vasc Surg. 2003; 37(5): 1017-26.
  12. Czeslik C, Royer CA, Hazlett TL, Mantulin WW.
    Reorientational dynamics of enzymes adsorbed on quartz: a temperature-dependent time-resolved TIRF anisotropy study.
    Biophys J. 2003; 84(4): 2533-41. PMCID: PMC1302819
  13. Wurzburger RJ, Gupta R, Parnassa AP, Jain S, Wexler JA, Chu JL, Elkon KB, Blank RD.
    Use of GC clamps in DHPLC mutation scanning.
    Clin Med Res. 2003; 1(2): 111-118. PMCID: PMC1069033
  14. Zamai M, vandeVen MJ, Farao M, Gratton E, Ghiglieri A, Castelli MG, Fontana E, D'Argy R, Fiorino A, Pesenti E, Suarato A, Caiolfa VR.
    Camptothecin poly[n-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] copolymers in antitopoisomerase-I tumor therapy: intratumor release and antitumor efficacy.
    Mol Cancer Ther. 2003; 2(1): 29-40.
  15. Safonova LP, Michalos A, Wolf U, Choi JH, Wolf M, Mantulin WW, Hueber DM, Gratton E.
    Diminished cerebral circulatory autoregulation in obstructive sleep apnea investigated by near-infrared spectroscopy.
    Sleep Research Online. 2003; 5(4): 123-132.


  1. Behne MJ, Meyer JW, Hanson KM, Barry NP, Murata S, Crumrine D, Clegg RM, Gratton E, Holleran WM, Elias PM, Mauro TM.
    NHE1 regulates the stratum corneum permeability barrier homeostasis. Microenvironment acidification assessed with fluorescence lifetime imaging.
    J Biol Chem. 2002; 277(49): 47399-406.
  2. Wolf M, Wolf U, Choi JH, Gupta R, Safonova LP, Paunescu LA, Michalos A, Gratton E.
    Functional frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy detects fast neuronal signal in the motor cortex.
    NeuroImage. 2002; 17(4): 1868-75.
  3. Ruan Q, Chen Y, Gratton E, Glaser M, Mantulin WW.
    Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2002; 83(6): 3177-87. PMCID: PMC1302395
  4. Best KB, Ohran AJ, Hawes AC, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Judd AM, Bell JD.
    Relationship between erythrocyte membrane phase properties and susceptibility to secretory phospholipase A2.
    Biochemistry. 2002; 41(47): 13982-8.
  5. Hanson KM, Behne MJ, Barry NP, Mauro TM, Gratton E, Clegg RM.
    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of the skin stratum corneum pH gradient.
    Biophys J. 2002; 83(3): 1682-90. PMCID: PMC1302264
  6. Wolf M, Wolf U, Toronov VY, Michalos A, Paunescu LA, Choi JH, Gratton E.
    Different time evolution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes in the visual and motor cortices during functional stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.
    NeuroImage. 2002; 16(3 Pt 1): 704-12.
  7. Fahsel S, Pospiech EM, Zein M, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Winter R.
    Modulation of concentration fluctuations in phase-separated lipid membranes by polypeptide insertion.
    Biophys J. 2002; 83(1): 334-44. PMCID: PMC1302151
  8. Hanson KM, Clegg RM.
    Observation and quantification of ultraviolet-induced reactive oxygen species in ex vivo human skin.
    Photochem Photobiol. 2002; 76(1): 57-63.
  9. Bettati S, Campanini B, Vaccari S, Mozzarelli A, Schianchi G, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Benci S.
    Unfolding of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase probed by time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002; 1596(1): 47-54.
  10. Sánchez SA, Bagatolli LA, Gratton E, Hazlett TL.
    A two-photon view of an enzyme at work: Crotalus atrox venom PLA2 interaction with single-lipid and mixed-lipid giant unilamellar vesicles.
    Biophys J. 2002; 82(4): 2232-43. PMCID: PMC1302016
  11. Huang H, Dong CY, Kwon HS, Sutin JDB, Kamm RD, So PTC.
    Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation.
    Biophys J. 2002; 82(4): 2211-23. PMCID: PMC1302014
  12. Patel RC, Kumar U, Lamb DC, Eid JS, Rocheville M, Grant M, Rani A, Hazlett TL, Patel SC, Gratton E, Patel YC.
    Ligand binding to somatostatin receptors induces receptor-specific oligomer formation in live cells.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99(5): 3294-9. PMCID: PMC122512
  13. Tricerri MA, Sánchez SA, Arnulphi C, Durbin DM, Gratton E, Jonas A.
    Interaction of apolipoprotein A-I in three different conformations with palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
    J Lipid Res. 2002; 43(2): 187-97.
  14. Breusegem SY, Clegg RM, Loontiens FG.
    Base-sequence specificity of Hoechst 33258 and DAPI binding to five (A/T)4 DNA sites with kinetic evidence for more than one high-affinity Hoechst 33258-AATT complex.
    J Mol Biol. 2002; 315(5): 1049-61.
  15. Sukhishvili SA, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E, Schweizer KS, Granick S.
    Surface diffusion of Poly(ethylene glycol).
    Macromolecules. 2002; 35(5): 1776-1784.
  16. Chen Y, Müller JD, Ruan Q, Gratton E.
    Molecular brightness characterization of EGFP in vivo by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2002; 82(1): 133-44. PMCID: PMC1302455
  17. Clegg RM.
    FRET tells us about proximities, distances, orientations and dynamic properties.
    J Biotechnol. 2002; 82(3): 177-9.


  1. Jasuja R, Hazlett TL, Helms MK, Lee SH, Jameson DM, Larsen RW.
    Temperature dependence of photoinduced electron transfer within self-associated porphyrin: guanine monophosphate complexes.
    Chem Phys Lett. 2001; 350(5-6): 515-521.
  2. Ruan Q, Ruan K, Balny C, Glaser M, Mantulin WW.
    Protein folding pathways of adenylate kinase from E. coli: hydrostatic pressure and stopped-flow studies.
    Biochemistry. 2001; 40(48): 14706-14.
  3. Bismuto E, Gratton E, Lamb DC.
    Dynamics of ANS binding to tuna apomyoglobin measured with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2001; 81(6): 3510-21. PMCID: PMC1301806
  4. Toronov VY, Webb A, Choi JH, Wolf M, Safonova LP, Wolf U, Gratton E.
    Study of local cerebral hemodynamics by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy and correlation with simultaneously acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging.
    Opt Express. 2001; 9(8): 417-427.
  5. Gratton E, Barry NP, Beretta S, Celli A.
    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy.
    Methods. 2001; 25(1): 103-10.
  6. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E.
    Direct observation of lipid domains in free-standing bilayers using two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy.
    J Fluoresc. 2001; 11(3): 141-160.
  7. Smith SK, Farnbach AR, Harris FM, Hawes AC, Jackson LR, Judd AM, Vest RS, Sánchez SA, Bell JD.
    Mechanisms by which intracellular calcium induces susceptibility to secretory phospholipase A2 in human erythrocytes.
    J Biol Chem. 2001; 276(25): 22732-22741.
  8. Sánchez SA, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E, Hazlett TL.
    Solution and interface aggregation states of Crotalus atrox venom phospholipase A2 by two-photon excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    Biochemistry. 2001; 40(23): 6903-11.
  9. Breusegem SY, Sadat-Ebrahimi SE, Douglas KT, Clegg RM, Loontiens FG.
    Increased stability and lifetime of the complex formed between DNA and meta-phenyl-substituted Hoechst dyes as studied by fluorescence titrations and stopped-flow kinetics.
    J Mol Biol. 2001; 308(4): 649-63.
  10. Tricerri MA, Agree AKB, Sánchez SA, Bronski J, Jonas A.
    Arrangement of apolipoprotein A-I in reconstituted high-density lipoprotein disks: an alternative model based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments.
    Biochemistry. 2001; 40(16): 5065-74.
  11. Krasnowska EK, Bagatolli LA, Gratton E, Parasassi T.
    Surface properties of cholesterol-containing membranes detected by Prodan fluorescence.
    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001; 1511(2): 330-40.
  12. Toronov VY, Webb A, Choi JH, Wolf M, Michalos A, Gratton E, Hueber DM.
    Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging.
    Med Phys. 2001; 28(4): 521-7.
  13. Chirico G, Bettati S, Mozzarelli A, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E.
    Molecular heterogeneity of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase by two-photon excited fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2001; 80(4): 1973-85. PMCID: PMC1301386
  14. Ferreira ST, Gratton E.
    Hydration and protein substates: fluorescence of proteins in reverse micelles.
    J Mol Liq. 2001; 45(3): 253-272.
  15. van Rompaey E, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E, van Craenenbroeck E, Engelborghs Y, de Smedt S, Demeester J.
    Fluorescence fluctuation analysis for the study of interactions between oligonucleotides and polycationic polymers.
    Biol Chem. 2001; 382(3): 379-386.
  16. Dietrich C, Bagatolli LA, Volovyk ZN, Thompson NL, Levi M, Jacobson KA, Gratton E.
    Lipid rafts reconstituted in model membranes.
    Biophys J. 2001; 80(3): 1417-28. PMCID: PMC1301333
  17. Dong CY, Buehler C, So PTC, French TE, Gratton E.
    Implementation of intensity-modulated laser diodes in time-resolved, pump-probe fluorescence microscopy.
    Appl Opt. 2001; 40(7): 1109-1115.
  18. Margeat E, Poujol N, Boulahtouf A, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E, Cavailles V, Royer CA.
    The human estrogen receptor alpha dimer binds a single SRC-1 coactivator molecule with an affinity dictated by agonist structure.
    J Mol Biol. 2001; 306(3): 433-42.
  19. Nayfeh MH, Barry NP, Therrien J, Akcakir O, Gratton E, Belomoin G.
    Stimulated blue emission in reconstituted films of ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles.
    Appl Phys Lett. 2001; 78(8): 1131-1133.
  20. Barcellona ML, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E.
    4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) interacts with rare structures of GC polymers.
    Eur Biophys J. 2001; 30(2): 98-109.


  1. Bettati S, Benci S, Campanini B, Raboni S, Chirico G, Beretta S, Schnackerz KD, Hazlett TL, Gratton E, Mozzarelli A.
    Role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the structural stabilization of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase.
    J Biol Chem. 2000; 275(51): 40244-51.
  2. Nayfeh MH, Akcakir O, Belomoin G, Barry NP, Therrien J, Gratton E.
    Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles.
    Appl Phys Lett. 2000; 77(25): 4086-4088.
  3. Holub O, Seufferheld MJ, Gohlke C, Govindjee, Clegg RM.
    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) in real-time - a new technique in photosynthesis research.
    Photosynthetica. 2000; 8(4): 581-599.
  4. Tricerri MA, Agree AKB, Sánchez SA, Jonas A.
    Characterization of apolipoprotein A-I structure using a cysteine-specific fluorescence probe.
    Biochemistry. 2000; 39(47): 14682-91.
  5. Lamb DC, Schenk A, Röcker C, Nienhaus GU.
    Determining chemical rate coefficients using time-gated fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.
    J Phys Org Chem. 2000; 13(10): 654 - 658.
  6. Chen Y, Müller JD, Tetin SY, Tyner JD, Gratton E.
    Probing ligand protein binding equilibria with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 2000; 79(2): 1074-1084. PMCID: PMC1301003
  7. Lamb DC, Schenk A, Röcker C, Scalfi-Happ C, Nienhaus GU.
    Sensitivity enhancement in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of multiple species using time-gated detection.
    Biophys J. 2000; 79(2): 1129-1138. PMCID: PMC1301008
  8. Sukhishvili SA, Chen Y, Müller JD, Gratton E, Schweizer KS, Granick S.
    Materials science: diffusion of a polymer 'pancake'.
    Nature. 2000; 406(6792): 146.
  9. Casavola C, Paunescu LA, Fantini S, Gratton E.
    Blood flow and oxygen consumption with near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion: spatial maps and the effect of time and pressure of inflation.
    J Biomed Opt. 2000; 5(3): 269-76.
  10. Buehler C, Dong CY, So PTC, French TE, Gratton E.
    Time-resolved polarization imaging by pump-probe (stimulated emission) fluorescence microscopy.
    Biophys J. 2000; 79(1): 536-49. PMCID: PMC1300957
  11. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E.
    A correlation between lipid domain shape and binary phospholipid mixture composition in free standing bilayers: a two-photon fluorescence microscopy study.
    Biophys J. 2000; 79(1): 434-47. PMCID: PMC1300947
  12. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E, Khan TK, Chong PLG.
    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy studies of bipolar tetraether giant liposomes from thermoacidophilic archaebacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.
    Biophys J. 2000; 79(1): 416-25. PMCID: PMC1300945
  13. Zolese G, Falcioni G, Bertoli E, Galeazzi R, Wozniak M, Wypych Z, Gratton E, Ambrosini A.
    Steady-state and time resolved fluorescence of albumins interacting with N-oleylethanolamine, a component of the endogenous N-acylethanolamines.
    Proteins. 2000; 40(1): 39-48.
  14. Parasassi T, Yu W, Durbin DM, Kuriashkina LR, Gratton E, Maeda N, Ursini F.
    Two-photon microscopy of aorta fibers shows proteolysis induced by LDL hydroperoxides.
    Free Radic Biol Med. 2000; 28(11): 1589-1597.
  15. Frolov A, Petrescu A, Atshaves BP, So PTC, Gratton E, Serrero G, Schroeder F.
    High density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol uptake and targeting to lipid droplets in intact L-cell fibroblasts. A single- and multiphoton fluorescence approach.
    J Biol Chem. 2000; 275(17): 12769-12780.
  16. Akcakir O, Therrien J, Belomoin G, Barry NP, Müller JD, Gratton E, Nayfeh MH.
    Detection of luminescent single ultra small silicon nanoparticles using fluctuation correlation spectroscopy.
    Appl Phys Lett. 2000; 76(14): 1857-1859.
  17. Bagatolli LA, Parasassi T, Gratton E.
    Giant phospholipid vesicles: comparison among the whole lipid sample characteristics using different preparation methods: a two photon fluorescence microscopy study.
    Chem Phys Lipids. 2000; 105(2): 135-47.
  18. Toronov VY, Franceschini MA, Filiaci ME, Fantini S, Wolf M, Michalos A, Gratton E.
    Near-infrared study of fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics during rest and motor stimulation: temporal analysis and spatial mapping.
    Med Phys. 2000; 27(4): 801-15.
  19. Stankovic MR, Maulik D, Rosenfeld W, Stubblefield PG, Kofinas AD, Gratton E, Franceschini MA, Fantini S, Hueber DM.
    Role of frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the detection of neonatal brain hemorrhage - a newborn piglet study.
    J Mat Fet Med. 2000; 9(2): 142-9.
  20. Tetin SY, Hazlett TL.
    Optical spectroscopy in studies of antibody-hapten interactions.
    Methods. 2000; 20(3): 341-61.
  21. Eid JS, Müller JD, Gratton E.
    Data acquisition card for fluctuation correlation spectroscopy allowing full access to the detected photon sequence.
    Rev Sci Instrum. 2000; 71(2): 361-368.
  22. Franceschini MA, Toronov VY, Filiaci ME, Gratton E, Fantini S.
    On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution.
    Opt Express. 2000; 6(3): 49-57.
  23. Arcangeli C, Yu W, Cannistraro S, Gratton E.
    Two-photon autofluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy of Antarctic fungus: new approach for studying effects of UV-B irradiation.
    Biopolymers. 2000; 57(4): 218-25.
  24. Müller JD, Chen Y, Gratton E.
    Resolving heterogeneity on the single molecular level with the photon-counting histogram.
    Biophys J. 2000; 78(1): 474-86. PMCID: PMC1300655
  25. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E.
    Two photon fluorescence microscopy of coexisting lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles of binary phospholipid mixtures.
    Biophys J. 2000; 78(1): 290-305. PMCID: PMC1300637
  26. Fantini S, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence photon-density waves in optically diffusive media.
    Optics Communications. 2000; 173(1): 73-79.


  1. Nayfeh MH, Akcakir O, Therrien J, Yamani Z, Barry NP, Yu W, Gratton E.
    Highly nonlinear photoluminescence threshold in porous silicon.
    Appl Phys Lett. 1999; 75(26): 4112.
  2. Davidson WS, Arnvig-McGuire K, Kennedy A, Kosman J, Hazlett TL, Jonas A.
    Structural organization of the N-terminal domain of apolipoprotein A-I: studies of tryptophan mutants.
    Biochemistry. 1999; 38(43): 14387-95.
  3. Bagatolli LA, Parasassi T, Fidelio GD, Gratton E.
    A model for the interaction of 6-lauroyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene with lipid environments: implications for spectral properties.
    Photochem Photobiol. 1999; 70(4): 557-64.
  4. Chen Y, Müller JD, Berland KM, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Methods. 1999; 19(2): 234-52.
  5. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E.
    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy observation of shape changes at the phase transition in phospholipid giant unilamellar vesicles.
    Biophys J. 1999; 77(4): 2090-101. PMCID: PMC1300490
  6. Parasassi T, Gratton E, Zajicek HK, Levi M, Yu W.
    Detecting membrane lipid microdomains by two-photon fluorescence microscopy.
    IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 1999; 18(5): 92-9.
  7. Stankovic MR, Maulik D, Rosenfeld W, Stubblefield PG, Kofinas AD, Drexler S, Nair R, Franceschini MA, Hueber DM, Gratton E, Fantini S.
    Real-time optical imaging of experimental brain ischemia and hemorrhage in neonatal piglets.
    J Perinat Med. 1999; 27(4): 279-86.
  8. Chen Y, Müller JD, So PTC, Gratton E.
    The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
    Biophys J. 1999; 77(1): 553-67. PMCID: PMC1300352
  9. Franceschini MA, Gratton E, Fantini S.
    Noninvasive optical method of measuring tissue and arterial saturation:an application to absolute pulse oximetry of the brain.
    Opt Lett. 1999; 24(12): 829-831.
  10. Fantini S, Hueber DM, Franceschini MA, Gratton E, Rosenfeld W, Stubblefield PG, Maulik D, Stankovic MR.
    Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy.
    Phys Med Biol. 1999; 44(6): 1543-63.
  11. Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Gratton E, Hueber DM, Rosenfeld W, Maulik D, Stubblefield PG, Stankovic MR.
    Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time.
    Opt Express. 1999; 4(8): 308-314.
  12. Casavola C, Paunescu LA, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Lugarà PM, Gratton E.
    Application of near-infrared tissue oxymetry to the diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease.
    Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 1999; 21(3-4): 389-393.
  13. Lasagna M, Gratton E, Jameson DM, Brunet JE.
    Apohorseradish peroxidase unfolding and refolding: intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies.
    Biophys J. 1999; 76(1): 443-450. PMCID: PMC1302533


  1. Parasassi T, Krasnowska EK, Bagatolli LA, Gratton E.
    Laurdan and Prodan as polarity-sensitive fluorescent membrane probes.
    J Fluoresc. 1998; 8(4): 365-373.
  2. Franceschini MA, Fantini S, Paunescu LA, Maier JS, Gratton E.
    Influence of a superficial layer in the quantitative spectroscopic study of strongly scattering media.
    Appl Opt. 1998; 37(31): 7447-7458.
  3. di Venere A, Mei G, Gilardi G, Rosato N, de Matteis F, McKay R, Gratton E, Finazzi-Agrò A.
    Resolution of the heterogeneous fluorescence in multi-tryptophan proteins: ascorbate oxidase.
    Eur J Biochem. 1998; 257(2): 337-43.
  4. Helms MK, Hazlett TL, Mizuguchi H, Hasemann CA, Uyeda K, Jameson DM.
    Site-directed mutants of rat testis fructose 6-phosphate, 2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase: localization of conformational alterations induced by ligand binding.
    Biochemistry. 1998; 37(40): 14057-64.
  5. Sánchez SA, Hazlett TL, Brunet JE, Jameson DM.
    Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.
    Protein Sci. 1998; 7(10): 2184-9. PMCID: PMC2143840
  6. Chance B, Cope M, Gratton E, Ramanujam N, Tromberg BJ.
    Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue.
    Rev Sci Instrum. 1998; 69(10): 3457-3481.
  7. Gilmore AM, Shinkarev VP, Hazlett TL, Govindjee.
    Quantitative analysis of the effects of intrathylakoid pH and xanthophyll cycle pigments on Chlorophyll A fluorescence lifetime distributions and intensity in thylakoids.
    Biochemistry. 1998; 37(39): 13582-93.
  8. Toronov VY, Filiaci ME, Fantini S, Gratton E.
    Photon-density wave correlation spectroscopy detects large-scale fluctuations in turbid media.
    Phys Rev E. 1998; 58(2): 2288-2297.
  9. Brune M, Hunter JL, Howell SA, Martin SR, Hazlett TL, Corrie JE, Webb MR.
    Mechanism of inorganic phosphate interaction with phosphate binding protein from Escherichia coli.
    Biochemistry. 1998; 37(29): 10370-80.
  10. So PTC, König K, Berland KM, Dong CY, French TE, Buehler C, Ragan TM, Gratton E.
    New time-resolved techniques in two-photon microscopy.
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1998; 44(5): 771-793.
  11. Bagatolli LA, Gratton E, Fidelio GD.
    Water dynamics in glycosphingolipid aggregates studied by LAURDAN fluorescence.
    Biophys J. 1998; 75(1): 331-41. PMCID: PMC1299702
  12. Krasnowska EK, Gratton E, Parasassi T.
    Prodan as a membrane surface fluorescence probe: partitioning between water and phospholipid phases.
    Biophys J. 1998; 74(4): 1984-93. PMCID: PMC1299539
  13. Walker SA, Boas DA, Gratton E.
    Photon density waves scattered from cylindrical inhomogeneities: theory and experiments.
    Appl Opt. 1998; 37(10): 1935-1944.
  14. Fantini S, Walker SA, Franceschini MA, Kaschke M, Schlag PM, Moesta KT.
    Assessment of the size, position, and optical properties of breast tumors in vivo by noninvasive optical methods.
    Appl Opt. 1998; 37(10): 1982-1989.
  15. Masters BR, So PTC, Gratton E.
    Optical biopsy of In vivo human skin: multi-photon excitation microscopy.
    Lasers Med Sci. 1998; 13(3): 197-204.


  1. Gratton G, Fabiani M, Corballis PM, Hood DC, Goodman-Wood MR, Hirsch J, Kim K, Friedman D, Gratton E.
    Fast and localized event-related optical signals (EROS) in the human occipital cortex: comparisons with the visual evoked potential and fMRI.
    NeuroImage. 1997; 6(3): 168-80.
  2. Gratton E, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Gratton G, Fabiani M.
    Measurements of scattering and absorption changes in muscle and brain.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci. 1997; 352(1354): 727-35. PMCID: PMC1691951
  3. Franceschini MA, Moesta KT, Fantini S, Gaida G, Gratton E, Jess H, Mantulin WW, Seeber M, Schlag PM, Kaschke M.
    Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997; 94(12): 6468-6473. PMCID: PMC21073
  4. Parasassi T, Gratton E, Yu W, Wilson PV, Levi M.
    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy of laurdan generalized polarization domains in model and natural membranes.
    Biophys J. 1997; 72(6): 2413-29. PMCID: PMC1184441
  5. Masters BR, So PTC, Gratton E.
    Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy of in vivo human skin.
    Biophys J. 1997; 72(6): 2405-12. PMCID: PMC1184440
  6. Franceschini MA, Fantini S, Cerussi AE, Barbieri BB, Chance B, Gratton E.
    Quantitative spectroscopic determination of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a turbid medium: analysis of the effect of water absorption.
    J Biomed Opt. 1997; 2(2): 174-153.
  7. Bernsdorff C, Wolf A, Winter R, Gratton E.
    Effect of hydrostatic pressure on water penetration and rotational dynamics in phospholipid-cholesterol bilayers.
    Biophys J. 1997; 72(3): 1264-77. PMCID: PMC1184509
  8. French TE, So PTC, Weaver DJ Jr, Coelho-Sampaio T, Gratton E, Voss EW Jr, Carrero J.
    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing.
    J Microsc. 1997; 185(Pt 3): 339-53.
  9. König K, So PTC, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Cellular response to near-infrared femotosecond laser pulses in two-photon microscopes.
    Opt Lett. 1997; 22(2): 135-136.
  10. Barshtein G, Bergelson L, Dagan A, Gratton E, Yedgar S.
    Membrane lipid order of human red blood cells is altered by physiological levels of hydrostatic pressure.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 1997; 272(1 Pt 2): H538-43.
  11. Cerussi AE, Maier JS, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Experimental verification of a theory for the time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of thick tissues.
    Appl Opt. 1997; 36(1): 116-124.
  12. Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Gratton E.
    Effective source term in the diffusion equation for photon transport in turbid media.
    Appl Opt. 1997; 36(1): 156-163.
  13. Walker SA, Fantini S, Gratton E.
    Image reconstruction by backprojection from frequency-domain optical measurements in highly scattering media.
    Appl Opt. 1997; 36(1): 170-174.
  14. Dong CY, So PTC, Buehler C, Gratton E.
    Spatial resolution in scanning pump-probe fluorescence microscopy.
    Optik. 1997; 106(1): 7-14.


  1. Zolese G, Giambanco I, Curatola G, Staffolani R, Gratton E, Donato R.
    Time-resolved fluorescence of S-100a protein: effect of Ca2+, Mg2+ and unilamellar vesicles of egg phosphatidylcholine.
    Cell Calcium. 1996; 20(6): 465-474.
  2. Davidson WS, Hazlett TL, Mantulin WW, Jonas A.
    The role of apolipoprotein AI domains in lipid binding.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996; 93(24): 13605-10. PMCID: PMC19365
  3. König K, So PTC, Mantulin WW, Tromberg BJ, Gratton E.
    Two-photon excited lifetime imaging of autofluorescence in cells during UVA and NIR photostress.
    J Microsc. 1996; 183(Pt 3): 197-204.
  4. Gilmore AM, Hazlett TL, Debrunner PG, Govindjee.
    Comparative time-resolved photosystem II Chlorophyll A fluorescence analyses reveal distinctive differences between photoinhibitory reaction center damage and xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation.
    Photochem Photobiol. 1996; 64(3): 552-63.
  5. Berland KM, So PTC, Chen Y, Mantulin WW, Gratton E.
    Scanning two-photon fluctuation correlation spectroscopy: particle counting measurements for detection of molecular aggregation.
    Biophys J. 1996; 71(1): 410-20. PMCID: PMC1233492
  6. Bilderback T, Fulmer TJ, Mantulin WW, Glaser M.
    Substrate binding causes movement in the ATP binding domain of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase.
    Biochemistry. 1996; 35(19): 6100-6.
  7. Barcellona ML, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence anisotropy of DNA/DAPI complex: torsional dynamics and geometry of the complex.
    Biophys J. 1996; 70(5): 2341-51. PMCID: PMC1225209
  8. Fishkin JB, Fantini S, vandeVen MJ, Gratton E.
    Gigahertz photon density waves in a turbid medium: theory and experiments.
    Phys Rev E. 1996; 53(3): 2307-2319.
  9. Parasassi T, Gratton E.
    Comments on 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence decrease at critical cholesterol concentration in phospholipid membranes.
    Biophys J. 1996; 70(3): 1560-2. PMCID: PMC1225084
  10. Yu W, So PTC, French TE, Gratton E.
    Fluorescence generalized polarization of cell membranes: a two-photon scanning microscopy approach.
    Biophys J. 1996; 70(2): 626-36. PMCID: PMC1224964
  11. Bismuto E, Sirangelo I, Irace G, Gratton E.
    Pressure-induced perturbation of apomyoglobin structure: fluorescence studies on native and acidic compact forms.
    Biochemistry. 1996; 35(4): 1173-8.
  12. Barcellona ML, Gratton E.
    Torsional dynamics and orientation of DNA-DAPI complexes.
    Biochemistry. 1996; 35(1): 321-33.
  13. Barshtein G, Bergelson L, Gratton E, Yedgar S.
    Human red blood cell shape and volume are changed by physiological levels of hydrostatic pressure.
    J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 1996; 7(4): 321-9.
  14. Bismuto E, Irace G, Sirangelo I, Gratton E.
    Pressure-induced perturbation of ANS-apomyoglobin complex: frequency domain fluorescence studies on native and acidic compact states.
    Protein Sci. 1996;