# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# tifffile.py

# Copyright (c) 2008-2018, Christoph Gohlke
# Copyright (c) 2008-2018, The Regents of the University of California
# Produced at the Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics
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"""Read and write TIFF(r) files.

Tifffile is a Python library to

(1) store numpy arrays in TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) files, and
(2) read image and metadata from TIFF like files used in bioimaging.

Image and metadata can be read from TIFF, BigTIFF, OME-TIFF, STK, LSM, NIH,
SGI, ImageJ, MicroManager, FluoView, ScanImage, SEQ, GEL, SVS, SCN, SIS, ZIF,
and GeoTIFF files.

Numpy arrays can be written to TIFF, BigTIFF, and ImageJ hyperstack compatible
files in multi-page, memory-mappable, tiled, predicted, or compressed form.

Only a subset of the TIFF specification is supported, mainly uncompressed and
losslessly compressed 1, 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit integer, 16, 32 and 64-bit float,
grayscale and RGB(A) images.
Specifically, reading slices of image data, image trees defined via SubIFDs,
CCITT and OJPEG compression, chroma subsampling without JPEG compression,
or IPTC and XMP metadata are not implemented.

TIFF(r), the Tagged Image File Format, is a trademark and under control of
Adobe Systems Incorporated. BigTIFF allows for files greater than 4 GB.
STK, LSM, FluoView, SGI, SEQ, GEL, and OME-TIFF, are custom extensions
defined by Molecular Devices (Universal Imaging Corporation), Carl Zeiss
MicroImaging, Olympus, Silicon Graphics International, Media Cybernetics,
Molecular Dynamics, and the Open Microscopy Environment consortium
respectively.

For command line usage run ``python -m tifffile --help``

:Author:
  `Christoph Gohlke <https://www.lfd.uci.edu/~gohlke/>`_

:Organization:
  Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine

:Version: 2018.11.6

Requirements
------------
* `CPython 2.7 or 3.5+ 64-bit <https://www.python.org>`_
* `Numpy 1.14 <https://www.numpy.org>`_
* `Imagecodecs 2018.10.30 <https://www.lfd.uci.edu/~gohlke/>`_
  (optional; used for decoding LZW, JPEG, etc.)
* `Matplotlib 2.2 <https://www.matplotlib.org>`_ (optional; used for plotting)
* Python 2 requires 'futures', 'enum34', and 'pathlib'.

Revisions
---------
2018.11.6
    Rename imsave function to imwrite.
    Readd Python implementations of packints, delta, and bitorder codecs.
    Fix TiffFrame.compression AttributeError (bug fix).
2018.10.18
    Rename tiffile package to tifffile.
2018.10.10
    Pass 2710 tests.
    Read ZIF, the Zoomable Image Format (WIP).
    Decode YCbCr JPEG as RGB (tentative).
    Improve restoration of incomplete tiles.
    Allow to write grayscale with extrasamples without specifying planarconfig.
    Enable decoding of PNG and JXR via imagecodecs.
    Deprecate 32-bit platforms (too many memory errors during tests).
2018.9.27
    Read Olympus SIS (WIP).
    Allow to write non-BigTIFF files up to ~4 GB (bug fix).
    Fix parsing date and time fields in SEM metadata (bug fix).
    Detect some circular IFD references.
    Enable WebP codecs via imagecodecs.
    Add option to read TiffSequence from ZIP containers.
    Remove TiffFile.isnative.
    Move TIFF struct format constants out of TiffFile namespace.
2018.8.31
    Pass 2699 tests.
    Fix wrong TiffTag.valueoffset (bug fix).
    Towards reading Hamamatsu NDPI (WIP).
    Enable PackBits compression of byte and bool arrays.
    Fix parsing NULL terminated CZ_SEM strings.
2018.8.24
    Move tifffile.py and related modules into tiffile package.
    Move usage examples to module docstring.
    Enable multi-threading for compressed tiles and pages by default.
    Add option to concurrently decode image tiles using threads.
    Do not skip empty tiles (bug fix).
    Read JPEG and J2K compressed strips and tiles.
    Allow floating point predictor on write.
    Add option to specify subfiletype on write.
    Depend on imagecodecs package instead of _tifffile, lzma, etc modules.
    Remove reverse_bitorder, unpack_ints, and decode functions.
    Use pytest instead of unittest.
2018.6.20
    Save RGBA with unassociated extrasample by default (backward incompatible).
    Add option to specify ExtraSamples values.
2018.6.17
    Pass 2680 tests.
    Towards reading JPEG and other compressions via imagecodecs package (WIP).
    Read SampleFormat VOID as UINT.
    Add function to validate TIFF using 'jhove -m TIFF-hul'.
    Save bool arrays as bilevel TIFF.
    Accept pathlib.Path as filenames.
    Move 'software' argument from TiffWriter __init__ to save.
    Raise DOS limit to 16 TB.
    Lazy load lzma and zstd compressors and decompressors.
    Add option to save IJMetadata tags.
    Return correct number of pages for truncated series (bug fix).
    Move EXIF tags to TIFF.TAG as per TIFF/EP standard.
2018.2.18
    Pass 2293 tests.
    Always save RowsPerStrip and Resolution tags as required by TIFF standard.
    Do not use badly typed ImageDescription.
    Coherce bad ASCII string tags to bytes.
    Tuning of __str__ functions.
    Fix reading 'undefined' tag values (bug fix).
    Read and write ZSTD compressed data.
    Use hexdump to print byte strings.
    Determine TIFF byte order from data dtype in imsave.
    Add option to specify RowsPerStrip for compressed strips.
    Allow memory-map of arrays with non-native byte order.
    Attempt to handle ScanImage <= 5.1 files.
    Restore TiffPageSeries.pages sequence interface.
    Use numpy.frombuffer instead of fromstring to read from binary data.
    Parse GeoTIFF metadata.
    Add option to apply horizontal differencing before compression.
    Towards reading PerkinElmer QPTIFF (no test files).
    Do not index out of bounds data in tifffile.c unpackbits and decodelzw.
2017.9.29 (tentative)
    Many backward incompatible changes improving speed and resource usage:
    Pass 2268 tests.
    Add detail argument to __str__ function. Remove info functions.
    Fix potential issue correcting offsets of large LSM files with positions.
    Remove TiffFile sequence interface; use TiffFile.pages instead.
    Do not make tag values available as TiffPage attributes.
    Use str (not bytes) type for tag and metadata strings (WIP).
    Use documented standard tag and value names (WIP).
    Use enums for some documented TIFF tag values.
    Remove 'memmap' and 'tmpfile' options; use out='memmap' instead.
    Add option to specify output in asarray functions.
    Add option to concurrently decode pages using threads.
    Add TiffPage.asrgb function (WIP).
    Do not apply colormap in asarray.
    Remove 'colormapped', 'rgbonly', and 'scale_mdgel' options from asarray.
    Consolidate metadata in TiffFile _metadata functions.
    Remove non-tag metadata properties from TiffPage.
    Add function to convert LSM to tiled BIN files.
    Align image data in file.
    Make TiffPage.dtype a numpy.dtype.
    Add 'ndim' and 'size' properties to TiffPage and TiffPageSeries.
    Allow imsave to write non-BigTIFF files up to ~4 GB.
    Only read one page for shaped series if possible.
    Add memmap function to create memory-mapped array stored in TIFF file.
    Add option to save empty arrays to TIFF files.
    Add option to save truncated TIFF files.
    Allow single tile images to be saved contiguously.
    Add optional movie mode for files with uniform pages.
    Lazy load pages.
    Use lightweight TiffFrame for IFDs sharing properties with key TiffPage.
    Move module constants to 'TIFF' namespace (speed up module import).
    Remove 'fastij' option from TiffFile.
    Remove 'pages' parameter from TiffFile.
    Remove TIFFfile alias.
    Deprecate Python 2.
    Require enum34 and futures packages on Python 2.7.
    Remove Record class and return all metadata as dict instead.
    Add functions to parse STK, MetaSeries, ScanImage, SVS, Pilatus metadata.
    Read tags from EXIF and GPS IFDs.
    Use pformat for tag and metadata values.
    Fix reading some UIC tags (bug fix).
    Do not modify input array in imshow (bug fix).
    Fix Python implementation of unpack_ints.
2017.5.23
    Pass 1961 tests.
    Write correct number of SampleFormat values (bug fix).
    Use Adobe deflate code to write ZIP compressed files.
    Add option to pass tag values as packed binary data for writing.
    Defer tag validation to attribute access.
    Use property instead of lazyattr decorator for simple expressions.
2017.3.17
    Write IFDs and tag values on word boundaries.
    Read ScanImage metadata.
    Remove is_rgb and is_indexed attributes from TiffFile.
    Create files used by doctests.
2017.1.12
    Read Zeiss SEM metadata.
    Read OME-TIFF with invalid references to external files.
    Rewrite C LZW decoder (5x faster).
    Read corrupted LSM files missing EOI code in LZW stream.
2017.1.1
    Add option to append images to existing TIFF files.
    Read files without pages.
    Read S-FEG and Helios NanoLab tags created by FEI software.
    Allow saving Color Filter Array (CFA) images.
    Add info functions returning more information about TiffFile and TiffPage.
    Add option to read specific pages only.
    Remove maxpages argument (backward incompatible).
    Remove test_tifffile function.
2016.10.28
    Pass 1944 tests.
    Improve detection of ImageJ hyperstacks.
    Read TVIPS metadata created by EM-MENU (by Marco Oster).
    Add option to disable using OME-XML metadata.
    Allow non-integer range attributes in modulo tags (by Stuart Berg).
2016.6.21
    Do not always memmap contiguous data in page series.
2016.5.13
    Add option to specify resolution unit.
    Write grayscale images with extra samples when planarconfig is specified.
    Do not write RGB color images with 2 samples.
    Reorder TiffWriter.save keyword arguments (backward incompatible).
2016.4.18
    Pass 1932 tests.
    TiffWriter, imread, and imsave accept open binary file streams.
2016.04.13
    Correctly handle reversed fill order in 2 and 4 bps images (bug fix).
    Implement reverse_bitorder in C.
2016.03.18
    Fix saving additional ImageJ metadata.
2016.2.22
    Pass 1920 tests.
    Write 8 bytes double tag values using offset if necessary (bug fix).
    Add option to disable writing second image description tag.
    Detect tags with incorrect counts.
    Disable color mapping for LSM.
2015.11.13
    Read LSM 6 mosaics.
    Add option to specify directory of memory-mapped files.
    Add command line options to specify vmin and vmax values for colormapping.
2015.10.06
    New helper function to apply colormaps.
    Renamed is_palette attributes to is_indexed (backward incompatible).
    Color-mapped samples are now contiguous (backward incompatible).
    Do not color-map ImageJ hyperstacks (backward incompatible).
    Towards reading Leica SCN.
2015.9.25
    Read images with reversed bit order (FillOrder is LSB2MSB).
2015.9.21
    Read RGB OME-TIFF.
    Warn about malformed OME-XML.
2015.9.16
    Detect some corrupted ImageJ metadata.
    Better axes labels for 'shaped' files.
    Do not create TiffTag for default values.
    Chroma subsampling is not supported.
    Memory-map data in TiffPageSeries if possible (optional).
2015.8.17
    Pass 1906 tests.
    Write ImageJ hyperstacks (optional).
    Read and write LZMA compressed data.
    Specify datetime when saving (optional).
    Save tiled and color-mapped images (optional).
    Ignore void bytecounts and offsets if possible.
    Ignore bogus image_depth tag created by ISS Vista software.
    Decode floating point horizontal differencing (not tiled).
    Save image data contiguously if possible.
    Only read first IFD from ImageJ files if possible.
    Read ImageJ 'raw' format (files larger than 4 GB).
    TiffPageSeries class for pages with compatible shape and data type.
    Try to read incomplete tiles.
    Open file dialog if no filename is passed on command line.
    Ignore errors when decoding OME-XML.
    Rename decoder functions (backward incompatible).
2014.8.24
    TiffWriter class for incremental writing images.
    Simplify examples.
2014.8.19
    Add memmap function to FileHandle.
    Add function to determine if image data in TiffPage is memory-mappable.
    Do not close files if multifile_close parameter is False.
2014.8.10
    Pass 1730 tests.
    Return all extrasamples by default (backward incompatible).
    Read data from series of pages into memory-mapped array (optional).
    Squeeze OME dimensions (backward incompatible).
    Workaround missing EOI code in strips.
    Support image and tile depth tags (SGI extension).
    Better handling of STK/UIC tags (backward incompatible).
    Disable color mapping for STK.
    Julian to datetime converter.
    TIFF ASCII type may be NULL separated.
    Unwrap strip offsets for LSM files greater than 4 GB.
    Correct strip byte counts in compressed LSM files.
    Skip missing files in OME series.
    Read embedded TIFF files.
2014.2.05
    Save rational numbers as type 5 (bug fix).
2013.12.20
    Keep other files in OME multi-file series closed.
    FileHandle class to abstract binary file handle.
    Disable color mapping for bad OME-TIFF produced by bio-formats.
    Read bad OME-XML produced by ImageJ when cropping.
2013.11.3
    Allow zlib compress data in imsave function (optional).
    Memory-map contiguous image data (optional).
2013.10.28
    Read MicroManager metadata and little-endian ImageJ tag.
    Save extra tags in imsave function.
    Save tags in ascending order by code (bug fix).
2012.10.18
    Accept file like objects (read from OIB files).
2012.8.21
    Rename TIFFfile to TiffFile and TIFFpage to TiffPage.
    TiffSequence class for reading sequence of TIFF files.
    Read UltraQuant tags.
    Allow float numbers as resolution in imsave function.
2012.8.3
    Read MD GEL tags and NIH Image header.
2012.7.25
    Read ImageJ tags.
    ...

Notes
-----
The API is not stable yet and might change between revisions.

Tested on little-endian platforms only.

Python 2.7, 3.4, and 32-bit versions are deprecated.

Other libraries for reading scientific TIFF files from Python:

*  `Python-bioformats <https://github.com/CellProfiler/python-bioformats>`_
*  `Imread <https://github.com/luispedro/imread>`_
*  `GDAL <https://github.com/OSGeo/gdal/tree/master/gdal/swig/python>`_
*  `OpenSlide-python <https://github.com/openslide/openslide-python>`_
*  `PyLibTiff <https://github.com/pearu/pylibtiff>`_
*  `SimpleITK <http://www.simpleitk.org>`_
*  `PyLSM <https://launchpad.net/pylsm>`_
*  `PyMca.TiffIO.py <https://github.com/vasole/pymca>`_ (same as fabio.TiffIO)
*  `BioImageXD.Readers <http://www.bioimagexd.net/>`_
*  `Cellcognition.io <http://cellcognition.org/>`_
*  `pymimage <https://github.com/ardoi/pymimage>`_
*  `pytiff <https://github.com/FZJ-INM1-BDA/pytiff>`_

Acknowledgements
----------------
*   Egor Zindy, University of Manchester, for lsm_scan_info specifics.
*   Wim Lewis for a bug fix and some LSM functions.
*   Hadrien Mary for help on reading MicroManager files.
*   Christian Kliche for help writing tiled and color-mapped files.

References
----------
1)  TIFF 6.0 Specification and Supplements. Adobe Systems Incorporated.
    http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/tiff/
2)  TIFF File Format FAQ. http://www.awaresystems.be/imaging/tiff/faq.html
3)  MetaMorph Stack (STK) Image File Format.
    http://support.meta.moleculardevices.com/docs/t10243.pdf
4)  Image File Format Description LSM 5/7 Release 6.0 (ZEN 2010).
    Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH. BioSciences. May 10, 2011
5)  The OME-TIFF format.
    http://www.openmicroscopy.org/site/support/file-formats/ome-tiff
6)  UltraQuant(r) Version 6.0 for Windows Start-Up Guide.
    http://www.ultralum.com/images%20ultralum/pdf/UQStart%20Up%20Guide.pdf
7)  Micro-Manager File Formats.
    http://www.micro-manager.org/wiki/Micro-Manager_File_Formats
8)  Tags for TIFF and Related Specifications. Digital Preservation.
    http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/content/tiff_tags.shtml
9)  ScanImage BigTiff Specification - ScanImage 2016.
    http://scanimage.vidriotechnologies.com/display/SI2016/
    ScanImage+BigTiff+Specification
10) CIPA DC-008-2016: Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras:
    Exif Version 2.31.
    http://www.cipa.jp/std/documents/e/DC-008-Translation-2016-E.pdf
11) ZIF, the Zoomable Image File format. http://zif.photo/

Examples
--------
Save a 3D numpy array to a multi-page, 16-bit grayscale TIFF file:

>>> data = numpy.random.randint(0, 2**16, (4, 301, 219), 'uint16')
>>> imwrite('temp.tif', data, photometric='minisblack')

Read the whole image stack from the TIFF file as numpy array:

>>> image_stack = imread('temp.tif')
>>> image_stack.shape
(4, 301, 219)
>>> image_stack.dtype
dtype('uint16')

Read the image from first page (IFD) in the TIFF file:

>>> image = imread('temp.tif', key=0)
>>> image.shape
(301, 219)

Read images from a sequence of TIFF files as numpy array:

>>> image_sequence = imread(['temp.tif', 'temp.tif'])
>>> image_sequence.shape
(2, 4, 301, 219)

Save a numpy array to a single-page RGB TIFF file:

>>> data = numpy.random.randint(0, 255, (256, 256, 3), 'uint8')
>>> imwrite('temp.tif', data, photometric='rgb')

Save a floating-point array and metadata, using zlib compression:

>>> data = numpy.random.rand(2, 5, 3, 301, 219).astype('float32')
>>> imwrite('temp.tif', data, compress=6, metadata={'axes': 'TZCYX'})

Save a volume with xyz voxel size 2.6755x2.6755x3.9474 ┬Ám^3 to ImageJ file:

>>> volume = numpy.random.randn(57*256*256).astype('float32')
>>> volume.shape = 1, 57, 1, 256, 256, 1  # dimensions in TZCYXS order
>>> imwrite('temp.tif', volume, imagej=True, resolution=(1./2.6755, 1./2.6755),
...         metadata={'spacing': 3.947368, 'unit': 'um'})

Read hyperstack and metadata from ImageJ file:

>>> with TiffFile('temp.tif') as tif:
...     imagej_hyperstack = tif.asarray()
...     imagej_metadata = tif.imagej_metadata
>>> imagej_hyperstack.shape
(57, 256, 256)
>>> imagej_metadata['slices']
57

Create an empty TIFF file and write to the memory-mapped numpy array:

>>> memmap_image = memmap('temp.tif', shape=(256, 256), dtype='float32')
>>> memmap_image[255, 255] = 1.0
>>> memmap_image.flush()
>>> memmap_image.shape, memmap_image.dtype
((256, 256), dtype('float32'))
>>> del memmap_image

Memory-map image data in the TIFF file:

>>> memmap_image = memmap('temp.tif', page=0)
>>> memmap_image[255, 255]
1.0
>>> del memmap_image

Successively append images to a BigTIFF file:

>>> data = numpy.random.randint(0, 255, (5, 2, 3, 301, 219), 'uint8')
>>> with TiffWriter('temp.tif', bigtiff=True) as tif:
...     for i in range(data.shape[0]):
...         tif.save(data[i], compress=6, photometric='minisblack')

Iterate over pages and tags in the TIFF file and successively read images:

>>> with TiffFile('temp.tif') as tif:
...     image_stack = tif.asarray()
...     for page in tif.pages:
...         for tag in page.tags.values():
...             tag_name, tag_value = tag.name, tag.value
...         image = page.asarray()

Save two image series to a TIFF file:

>>> data0 = numpy.random.randint(0, 255, (301, 219, 3), 'uint8')
>>> data1 = numpy.random.randint(0, 255, (5, 301, 219), 'uint16')
>>> with TiffWriter('temp.tif') as tif:
...     tif.save(data0, compress=6, photometric='rgb')
...     tif.save(data1, compress=6, photometric='minisblack')

Read the second image series from the TIFF file:

>>> series1 = imread('temp.tif', series=1)
>>> series1.shape
(5, 301, 219)

Read a image stack from a sequence of TIFF files with a file name pattern:

>>> imwrite('temp_C001T001.tif', numpy.random.rand(64, 64))
>>> imwrite('temp_C001T002.tif', numpy.random.rand(64, 64))
>>> image_sequence = TiffSequence('temp_C001*.tif')
>>> image_sequence.shape
(1, 2)
>>> image_sequence.axes
'CT'
>>> data = image_sequence.asarray()
>>> data.shape
(1, 2, 64, 64)

"""

from __future__ import division, print_function

__version__ = '2018.11.6'
__docformat__ = 'restructuredtext en'
__all__ = ('imwrite', 'imsave', 'imread', 'imshow', 'memmap',
           'TiffFile', 'TiffWriter', 'TiffSequence', 'FileHandle',
           'TiffPage', 'TiffFrame', 'TiffTag', 'TIFF',
           # utility functions used by oiffile, czifile, etc
           'lazyattr', 'natural_sorted', 'stripnull', 'transpose_axes',
           'squeeze_axes', 'create_output', 'repeat_nd', 'format_size',
           'product', 'xml2dict', 'pformat', 'str2bytes', '_app_show')

import sys
import os
import io
import re
import glob
import math
import time
import json
import enum
import struct
import pathlib
import warnings
import binascii
import datetime
import threading
import collections
import concurrent.futures

import numpy

try:
    import imagecodecs
except ImportError:
    imagecodecs = None

# delay import of mmap, pprint, fractions, xml, tkinter, lxml, matplotlib,
#   subprocess, multiprocessing, tempfile, zipfile, fnmatch


def imread(files, **kwargs):
    """Return image data from TIFF file(s) as numpy array.

    Refer to the TiffFile class and member functions for documentation.

    Parameters
    ----------
    files : str, binary stream, or sequence
        File name, seekable binary stream, glob pattern, or sequence of
        file names.
    kwargs : dict
        Parameters 'multifile' and 'is_ome' are passed to the TiffFile class.
        The 'pattern' parameter is passed to the TiffSequence class.
        Other parameters are passed to the asarray functions.
        The first image series is returned if no arguments are provided.

    """
    kwargs_file = parse_kwargs(kwargs, 'multifile', 'is_ome')
    kwargs_seq = parse_kwargs(kwargs, 'pattern')

    if isinstance(files, basestring) and any(i in files for i in '?*'):
        files = glob.glob(files)
    if not files:
        raise ValueError('no files found')
    if not hasattr(files, 'seek') and len(files) == 1:
        files = files[0]

    if isinstance(files, basestring) or hasattr(files, 'seek'):
        with TiffFile(files, **kwargs_file) as tif:
            return tif.asarray(**kwargs)
    else:
        with TiffSequence(files, **kwargs_seq) as imseq:
            return imseq.asarray(**kwargs)


def imwrite(file, data=None, shape=None, dtype=None, bigsize=2**32-2**25,
            **kwargs):
    """Write numpy array to TIFF file.

    Refer to the TiffWriter class and member functions for documentation.

    Parameters
    ----------
    file : str or binary stream
        File name or writable binary stream, such as an open file or BytesIO.
    data : array_like
        Input image. The last dimensions are assumed to be image depth,
        height, width, and samples.
        If None, an empty array of the specified shape and dtype is
        saved to file.
        Unless 'byteorder' is specified in 'kwargs', the TIFF file byte order
        is determined from the data's dtype or the dtype argument.
    shape : tuple
        If 'data' is None, shape of an empty array to save to the file.
    dtype : numpy.dtype
        If 'data' is None, data-type of an empty array to save to the file.
    bigsize : int
        Create a BigTIFF file if the size of data in bytes is larger than
        this threshold and 'imagej' or 'truncate' are not enabled.
        By default, the threshold is 4 GB minus 32 MB reserved for metadata.
        Use the 'bigtiff' parameter to explicitly specify the type of
        file created.
    kwargs : dict
        Parameters 'append', 'byteorder', 'bigtiff', and 'imagej', are passed
        to TiffWriter(). Other parameters are passed to TiffWriter.save().

    Returns
    -------
    offset, bytecount : tuple or None
        If the image data are written contiguously, return offset and bytecount
        of image data in the file.

    """
    tifargs = parse_kwargs(kwargs, 'append', 'bigtiff', 'byteorder', 'imagej')
    if data is None:
        size = product(shape) * numpy.dtype(dtype).itemsize
        byteorder = numpy.dtype(dtype).byteorder
    else:
        try:
            size = data.nbytes
            byteorder = data.dtype.byteorder
        except Exception:
            size = 0
            byteorder = None
    if size > bigsize and 'bigtiff' not in tifargs and not (
            tifargs.get('imagej', False) or tifargs.get('truncate', False)):
        tifargs['bigtiff'] = True
    if 'byteorder' not in tifargs:
        tifargs['byteorder'] = byteorder

    with TiffWriter(file, **tifargs) as tif:
        return tif.save(data, shape, dtype, **kwargs)


imsave = imwrite


def memmap(filename, shape=None, dtype=None, page=None, series=0, mode='r+',
           **kwargs):
    """Return memory-mapped numpy array stored in TIFF file.

    Memory-mapping requires data stored in native byte order, without tiling,
    compression, predictors, etc.
    If 'shape' and 'dtype' are provided, existing files will be overwritten or
    appended to depending on the 'append' parameter.
    Otherwise the image data of a specified page or series in an existing
    file will be memory-mapped. By default, the image data of the first page
    series is memory-mapped.
    Call flush() to write any changes in the array to the file.
    Raise ValueError if the image data in the file is not memory-mappable.

    Parameters
    ----------
    filename : str
        Name of the TIFF file which stores the array.
    shape : tuple
        Shape of the empty array.
    dtype : numpy.dtype
        Data-type of the empty array.
    page : int
        Index of the page which image data to memory-map.
    series : int
        Index of the page series which image data to memory-map.
    mode : {'r+', 'r', 'c'}, optional
        The file open mode. Default is to open existing file for reading and
        writing ('r+').
    kwargs : dict
        Additional parameters passed to imwrite() or TiffFile().

    """
    if shape is not None and dtype is not None:
        # create a new, empty array
        kwargs.update(data=None, shape=shape, dtype=dtype, returnoffset=True,
                      align=TIFF.ALLOCATIONGRANULARITY)
        result = imwrite(filename, **kwargs)
        if result is None:
            # TODO: fail before creating file or writing data
            raise ValueError('image data are not memory-mappable')
        offset = result[0]
    else:
        # use existing file
        with TiffFile(filename, **kwargs) as tif:
            if page is not None:
                page = tif.pages[page]
                if not page.is_memmappable:
                    raise ValueError('image data are not memory-mappable')
                offset, _ = page.is_contiguous
                shape = page.shape
                dtype = page.dtype
            else:
                series = tif.series[series]
                if series.offset is None:
                    raise ValueError('image data are not memory-mappable')
                shape = series.shape
                dtype = series.dtype
                offset = series.offset
            dtype = tif.byteorder + dtype.char
    return numpy.memmap(filename, dtype, mode, offset, shape, 'C')


class lazyattr(object):
    """Attribute whose value is computed on first access."""
    # TODO: help() doesn't work
    __slots__ = ('func',)

    def __init__(self, func):
        self.func = func
        # self.__name__ = func.__name__
        # self.__doc__ = func.__doc__
        # self.lock = threading.RLock()

    def __get__(self, instance, owner):
        # with self.lock:
        if instance is None:
            return self
        try:
            value = self.func(instance)
        except AttributeError as e:
            raise RuntimeError(e)
        if value is NotImplemented:
            return getattr(super(owner, instance), self.func.__name__)
        setattr(instance, self.func.__name__, value)
        return value


class TiffWriter(object):
    """Write numpy arrays to TIFF file.

    TiffWriter instances must be closed using the 'close' method, which is
    automatically called when using the 'with' context manager.

    TiffWriter's main purpose is saving nD numpy array's as TIFF,
    not to create any possible TIFF format. Specifically, JPEG compression,
    SubIFDs, ExifIFD, or GPSIFD tags are not supported.

    """
    def __init__(self, file, bigtiff=False, byteorder=None, append=False,
                 imagej=False):
        """Open a TIFF file for writing.

        An empty TIFF file is created if the file does not exist, else the
        file is overwritten with an empty TIFF file unless 'append'
        is true. Use bigtiff=True when creating files larger than 4 GB.

        Parameters
        ----------
        file : str, binary stream, or FileHandle
            File name or writable binary stream, such as an open file
            or BytesIO.
        bigtiff : bool
            If True, the BigTIFF format is used.
        byteorder : {'<', '>', '=', '|'}
            The endianness of the data in the file.
            By default, this is the system's native byte order.
        append : bool
            If True and 'file' is an existing standard TIFF file, image data
            and tags are appended to the file.
            Appending data may corrupt specifically formatted TIFF files
            such as LSM, STK, ImageJ, NIH, or FluoView.
        imagej : bool
            If True, write an ImageJ hyperstack compatible file.
            This format can handle data types uint8, uint16, or float32 and
            data shapes up to 6 dimensions in TZCYXS order.
            RGB images (S=3 or S=4) must be uint8.
            ImageJ's default byte order is big-endian but this implementation
            uses the system's native byte order by default.
            ImageJ does not support BigTIFF format or non DEFLATE compression.
            The ImageJ file format is undocumented.

        """
        if append:
            # determine if file is an existing TIFF file that can be extended
            try:
                with FileHandle(file, mode='rb', size=0) as fh:
                    pos = fh.tell()
                    try:
                        with TiffFile(fh) as tif:
                            if (append != 'force' and
                                    any(getattr(tif, 'is_'+a) for a in (
                                        'lsm', 'stk', 'imagej', 'nih',
                                        'fluoview', 'micromanager'))):
                                raise ValueError('file contains metadata')
                            byteorder = tif.byteorder
                            bigtiff = tif.is_bigtiff
                            self._ifdoffset = tif.pages.next_page_offset
                    except Exception as e:
                        raise ValueError('cannot append to file: %s' % str(e))
                    finally:
                        fh.seek(pos)
            except (IOError, FileNotFoundError):
                append = False

        if byteorder in (None, '=', '|'):
            byteorder = '<' if sys.byteorder == 'little' else '>'
        elif byteorder not in ('<', '>'):
            raise ValueError('invalid byteorder %s' % byteorder)
        if imagej and bigtiff:
            warnings.warn('writing incompatible BigTIFF ImageJ')

        self._byteorder = byteorder
        self._imagej = bool(imagej)
        self._truncate = False
        self._metadata = None
        self._colormap = None

        self._descriptionoffset = 0
        self._descriptionlen = 0
        self._descriptionlenoffset = 0
        self._tags = None
        self._shape = None  # normalized shape of data in consecutive pages
        self._datashape = None  # shape of data in consecutive pages
        self._datadtype = None  # data type
        self._dataoffset = None  # offset to data
        self._databytecounts = None  # byte counts per plane
        self._tagoffsets = None  # strip or tile offset tag code

        if bigtiff:
            self._bigtiff = True
            self._offsetsize = 8
            self._tagsize = 20
            self._tagnoformat = 'Q'
            self._offsetformat = 'Q'
            self._valueformat = '8s'
        else:
            self._bigtiff = False
            self._offsetsize = 4
            self._tagsize = 12
            self._tagnoformat = 'H'
            self._offsetformat = 'I'
            self._valueformat = '4s'

        if append:
            self._fh = FileHandle(file, mode='r+b', size=0)
            self._fh.seek(0, 2)
        else:
            self._fh = FileHandle(file, mode='wb', size=0)
            self._fh.write({'<': b'II', '>': b'MM'}[byteorder])
            if bigtiff:
                self._fh.write(struct.pack(byteorder+'HHH', 43, 8, 0))
            else:
                self._fh.write(struct.pack(byteorder+'H', 42))
            # first IFD
            self._ifdoffset = self._fh.tell()
            self._fh.write(struct.pack(byteorder+self._offsetformat, 0))

    def save(self, data=None, shape=None, dtype=None, returnoffset=False,
             photometric=None, planarconfig=None, extrasamples=None, tile=None,
             contiguous=True, align=16, truncate=False, compress=0,
             rowsperstrip=None, predictor=False, colormap=None,
             description=None, datetime=None, resolution=None, subfiletype=0,
             software='tifffile.py', metadata={}, ijmetadata=None,
             extratags=()):
        """Write numpy array and tags to TIFF file.

        The data shape's last dimensions are assumed to be image depth,
        height (length), width, and samples.
        If a colormap is provided, the data's dtype must be uint8 or uint16
        and the data values are indices into the last dimension of the
        colormap.
        If 'shape' and 'dtype' are specified, an empty array is saved.
        This option cannot be used with compression or multiple tiles.
        Image data are written uncompressed in one strip per plane by default.
        Dimensions larger than 2 to 4 (depending on photometric mode, planar
        configuration, and SGI mode) are flattened and saved as separate pages.
        The SampleFormat and BitsPerSample tags are derived from the data type.

        Parameters
        ----------
        data : numpy.ndarray or None
            Input image array.
        shape : tuple or None
            Shape of the empty array to save. Used only if 'data' is None.
        dtype : numpy.dtype or None
            Data-type of the empty array to save. Used only if 'data' is None.
        returnoffset : bool
            If True and the image data in the file is memory-mappable, return
            the offset and number of bytes of the image data in the file.
        photometric : {'MINISBLACK', 'MINISWHITE', 'RGB', 'PALETTE', 'CFA'}
            The color space of the image data.
            By default, this setting is inferred from the data shape and the
            value of colormap.
            For CFA images, DNG tags must be specified in 'extratags'.
        planarconfig : {'CONTIG', 'SEPARATE'}
            Specifies if samples are stored contiguous or in separate planes.
            By default, this setting is inferred from the data shape.
            If this parameter is set, extra samples are used to store grayscale
            images.
            'CONTIG': last dimension contains samples.
            'SEPARATE': third last dimension contains samples.
        extrasamples : tuple of {'UNSPECIFIED', 'ASSOCALPHA', 'UNASSALPHA'}
            Defines the interpretation of extra components in pixels.
            'UNSPECIFIED': no transparency information (default).
            'ASSOCALPHA': single, true transparency with pre-multiplied color.
            'UNASSALPHA': independent transparency masks.
        tile : tuple of int
            The shape (depth, length, width) of image tiles to write.
            If None (default), image data are written in strips.
            The tile length and width must be a multiple of 16.
            If the tile depth is provided, the SGI ImageDepth and TileDepth
            tags are used to save volume data.
            Unless a single tile is used, tiles cannot be used to write
            contiguous files.
            Few software can read the SGI format, e.g. MeVisLab.
        contiguous : bool
            If True (default) and the data and parameters are compatible with
            previous ones, if any, the image data are stored contiguously after
            the previous one. Parameters 'photometric' and 'planarconfig'
            are ignored. Parameters 'description', datetime', and 'extratags'
            are written to the first page of a contiguous series only.
        align : int
            Byte boundary on which to align the image data in the file.
            Default 16. Use mmap.ALLOCATIONGRANULARITY for memory-mapped data.
            Following contiguous writes are not aligned.
        truncate : bool
            If True, only write the first page including shape metadata if
            possible (uncompressed, contiguous, not tiled).
            Other TIFF readers will only be able to read part of the data.
        compress : int or str or (str, int)
            If 0 (default), data are written uncompressed.
            If 0-9, the level of ADOBE_DEFLATE compression.
            If a str, one of TIFF.COMPRESSION, e.g. 'LZMA' or 'ZSTD'.
            If a tuple, first item is one of TIFF.COMPRESSION and second item
            is compression level.
            Compression cannot be used to write contiguous files.
        rowsperstrip : int
            The number of rows per strip used for compression.
            Uncompressed data are written in one strip per plane.
        predictor : bool
            If True, apply horizontal differencing or floating point predictor
            before compression.
        colormap : numpy.ndarray
            RGB color values for the corresponding data value.
            Must be of shape (3, 2**(data.itemsize*8)) and dtype uint16.
        description : str
            The subject of the image. Must be 7-bit ASCII. Cannot be used with
            the ImageJ format. Saved with the first page only.
        datetime : datetime
            Date and time of image creation in '%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S' format.
            If None (default), the current date and time is used.
            Saved with the first page only.
        resolution : (float, float[, str]) or ((int, int), (int, int)[, str])
            X and Y resolutions in pixels per resolution unit as float or
            rational numbers. A third, optional parameter specifies the
            resolution unit, which must be None (default for ImageJ),
            'INCH' (default), or 'CENTIMETER'.
        subfiletype : int
            Bitfield to indicate the kind of data. Set bit 0 if the image
            is a reduced-resolution version of another image. Set bit 1 if
            the image is part of a multi-page image. Set bit 2 if the image
            is transparency mask for another image (photometric must be
            MASK, SamplesPerPixel and BitsPerSample must be 1).
        software : str
            Name of the software used to create the file. Must be 7-bit ASCII.
            Saved with the first page only.
        metadata : dict
            Additional meta data to be saved along with shape information
            in JSON or ImageJ formats in an ImageDescription tag.
            If None, do not write a second ImageDescription tag.
            Strings must be 7-bit ASCII. Saved with the first page only.
        ijmetadata : dict
            Additional meta data to be saved in application specific
            IJMetadata and IJMetadataByteCounts tags. Refer to the
            imagej_metadata_tag function for valid keys and values.
            Saved with the first page only.
        extratags : sequence of tuples
            Additional tags as [(code, dtype, count, value, writeonce)].

            code : int
                The TIFF tag Id.
            dtype : str
                Data type of items in 'value' in Python struct format.
                One of B, s, H, I, 2I, b, h, i, 2i, f, d, Q, or q.
            count : int
                Number of data values. Not used for string or byte string
                values.
            value : sequence
                'Count' values compatible with 'dtype'.
                Byte strings must contain count values of dtype packed as
                binary data.
            writeonce : bool
                If True, the tag is written to the first page only.

        """
        # TODO: refactor this function
        fh = self._fh
        byteorder = self._byteorder

        if data is None:
            if compress:
                raise ValueError('cannot save compressed empty file')
            datashape = shape
            datadtype = numpy.dtype(dtype).newbyteorder(byteorder)
            datadtypechar = datadtype.char
        else:
            data = numpy.asarray(data, byteorder+data.dtype.char, 'C')
            if data.size == 0:
                raise ValueError('cannot save empty array')
            datashape = data.shape
            datadtype = data.dtype
            datadtypechar = data.dtype.char

        returnoffset = returnoffset and datadtype.isnative
        bilevel = datadtypechar == '?'
        if bilevel:
            index = -1 if datashape[-1] > 1 else -2
            datasize = product(datashape[:index])
            if datashape[index] % 8:
                datasize *= datashape[index] // 8 + 1
            else:
                datasize *= datashape[index] // 8
        else:
            datasize = product(datashape) * datadtype.itemsize

        # just append contiguous data if possible
        self._truncate = bool(truncate)
        if self._datashape:
            if (not contiguous
                    or self._datashape[1:] != datashape
                    or self._datadtype != datadtype
                    or (compress and self._tags)
                    or tile
                    or not numpy.array_equal(colormap, self._colormap)):
                # incompatible shape, dtype, compression mode, or colormap
                self._write_remaining_pages()
                self._write_image_description()
                self._truncate = False
                self._descriptionoffset = 0
                self._descriptionlenoffset = 0
                self._datashape = None
                self._colormap = None
                if self._imagej:
                    raise ValueError(
                        'ImageJ does not support non-contiguous data')
            else:
                # consecutive mode
                self._datashape = (self._datashape[0] + 1,) + datashape
                if not compress:
                    # write contiguous data, write IFDs/tags later
                    offset = fh.tell()
                    if data is None:
                        fh.write_empty(datasize)
                    else:
                        fh.write_array(data)
                    if returnoffset:
                        return offset, datasize
                    return

        input_shape = datashape
        tagnoformat = self._tagnoformat
        valueformat = self._valueformat
        offsetformat = self._offsetformat
        offsetsize = self._offsetsize
        tagsize = self._tagsize

        MINISBLACK = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.MINISBLACK
        MINISWHITE = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.MINISWHITE
        RGB = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.RGB
        CFA = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.CFA
        PALETTE = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.PALETTE
        CONTIG = TIFF.PLANARCONFIG.CONTIG
        SEPARATE = TIFF.PLANARCONFIG.SEPARATE

        # parse input
        if photometric is not None:
            photometric = enumarg(TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC, photometric)
        if planarconfig:
            planarconfig = enumarg(TIFF.PLANARCONFIG, planarconfig)
        if extrasamples is None:
            extrasamples_ = None
        else:
            extrasamples_ = tuple(enumarg(TIFF.EXTRASAMPLE, es)
                                  for es in sequence(extrasamples))
        if not compress:
            compress = False
            compresstag = 1
            # TODO: support predictors without compression
            predictor = False
            predictortag = 1
        else:
            if isinstance(compress, (tuple, list)):
                compress, compresslevel = compress
            elif isinstance(compress, int):
                compress, compresslevel = 'ADOBE_DEFLATE', int(compress)
                if not 0 <= compresslevel <= 9:
                    raise ValueError('invalid compression level %s' % compress)
            else:
                compresslevel = None
            compress = compress.upper()
            compresstag = enumarg(TIFF.COMPRESSION, compress)

        if predictor:
            if datadtype.kind in 'iu':
                predictortag = 2
                predictor = TIFF.PREDICTORS[2]
            elif datadtype.kind == 'f':
                predictortag = 3
                predictor = TIFF.PREDICTORS[3]
            else:
                raise ValueError('cannot apply predictor to %s' % datadtype)

        # prepare ImageJ format
        if self._imagej:
            if predictor or (compress and compress != 'ADOBE_DEFLATE'):
                raise ValueError(
                    'ImageJ cannot handle predictors or compression type')
            if description:
                warnings.warn('not writing description to ImageJ file')
                description = None
            volume = False
            if datadtypechar not in 'BHhf':
                raise ValueError(
                    'ImageJ does not support data type %s' % datadtypechar)
            ijrgb = photometric == RGB if photometric else None
            if datadtypechar not in 'B':
                ijrgb = False
            ijshape = imagej_shape(datashape, ijrgb)
            if ijshape[-1] in (3, 4):
                photometric = RGB
                if datadtypechar not in 'B':
                    raise ValueError('ImageJ does not support data type %s '
                                     'for RGB' % datadtypechar)
            elif photometric is None:
                photometric = MINISBLACK
                planarconfig = None
            if planarconfig == SEPARATE:
                raise ValueError('ImageJ does not support planar images')
            else:
                planarconfig = CONTIG if ijrgb else None

        # define compress function
        if compress:
            compressor = TIFF.COMPESSORS[compresstag]
            if predictor:
                def compress(data, level=compresslevel):
                    data = predictor(data, axis=-2)
                    return compressor(data, level)
            else:
                def compress(data, level=compresslevel):
                    return compressor(data, level)

        # verify colormap and indices
        if colormap is not None:
            if datadtypechar not in 'BH':
                raise ValueError('invalid data dtype for palette mode')
            colormap = numpy.asarray(colormap, dtype=byteorder+'H')
            if colormap.shape != (3, 2**(datadtype.itemsize * 8)):
                raise ValueError('invalid color map shape')
            self._colormap = colormap

        # verify tile shape
        if tile:
            tile = tuple(int(i) for i in tile[:3])
            volume = len(tile) == 3
            if (len(tile) < 2 or tile[-1] % 16 or tile[-2] % 16 or
                    any(i < 1 for i in tile)):
                raise ValueError('invalid tile shape')
        else:
            tile = ()
            volume = False

        # normalize data shape to 5D or 6D, depending on volume:
        #   (pages, planar_samples, [depth,] height, width, contig_samples)
        datashape = reshape_nd(datashape, 3 if photometric == RGB else 2)
        shape = datashape
        ndim = len(datashape)

        samplesperpixel = 1
        extrasamples = 0
        if volume and ndim < 3:
            volume = False
        if colormap is not None:
            photometric = PALETTE
            planarconfig = None
        if photometric is None:
            photometric = MINISBLACK
            if bilevel:
                photometric = MINISWHITE
            elif planarconfig == CONTIG:
                if ndim > 2 and shape[-1] in (3, 4):
                    photometric = RGB
            elif planarconfig == SEPARATE:
                if volume and ndim > 3 and shape[-4] in (3, 4):
                    photometric = RGB
                elif ndim > 2 and shape[-3] in (3, 4):
                    photometric = RGB
            elif ndim > 2 and shape[-1] in (3, 4):
                photometric = RGB
            elif self._imagej:
                photometric = MINISBLACK
            elif volume and ndim > 3 and shape[-4] in (3, 4):
                photometric = RGB
            elif ndim > 2 and shape[-3] in (3, 4):
                photometric = RGB
        if planarconfig and len(shape) <= (3 if volume else 2):
            planarconfig = None
            if photometric not in (0, 1, 3, 4):
                photometric = MINISBLACK
        if photometric == RGB:
            if len(shape) < 3:
                raise ValueError('not a RGB(A) image')
            if len(shape) < 4:
                volume = False
            if planarconfig is None:
                if shape[-1] in (3, 4):
                    planarconfig = CONTIG
                elif shape[-4 if volume else -3] in (3, 4):
                    planarconfig = SEPARATE
                elif shape[-1] > shape[-4 if volume else -3]:
                    planarconfig = SEPARATE
                else:
                    planarconfig = CONTIG
            if planarconfig == CONTIG:
                datashape = (-1, 1) + shape[(-4 if volume else -3):]
                samplesperpixel = datashape[-1]
            else:
                datashape = (-1,) + shape[(-4 if volume else -3):] + (1,)
                samplesperpixel = datashape[1]
            if samplesperpixel > 3:
                extrasamples = samplesperpixel - 3
        elif photometric == CFA:
            if len(shape) != 2:
                raise ValueError('invalid CFA image')
            volume = False
            planarconfig = None
            datashape = (-1, 1) + shape[-2:] + (1,)
            if 50706 not in (et[0] for et in extratags):
                raise ValueError('must specify DNG tags for CFA image')
        elif planarconfig and len(shape) > (3 if volume else 2):
            if planarconfig == CONTIG:
                datashape = (-1, 1) + shape[(-4 if volume else -3):]
                samplesperpixel = datashape[-1]
            else:
                datashape = (-1,) + shape[(-4 if volume else -3):] + (1,)
                samplesperpixel = datashape[1]
            extrasamples = samplesperpixel - 1
        else:
            planarconfig = None
            while len(shape) > 2 and shape[-1] == 1:
                shape = shape[:-1]  # remove trailing 1s
            if len(shape) < 3:
                volume = False
            if extrasamples_ is None:
                datashape = (-1, 1) + shape[(-3 if volume else -2):] + (1,)
            else:
                datashape = (-1, 1) + shape[(-4 if volume else -3):]
                samplesperpixel = datashape[-1]
                extrasamples = samplesperpixel - 1

        if subfiletype & 0b100:
            # FILETYPE_MASK
            if not (bilevel and samplesperpixel == 1 and
                    photometric in (0, 1, 4)):
                raise ValueError('invalid SubfileType MASK')
            photometric = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC.MASK

        # normalize shape to 6D
        assert len(datashape) in (5, 6)
        if len(datashape) == 5:
            datashape = datashape[:2] + (1,) + datashape[2:]
        if datashape[0] == -1:
            s0 = product(input_shape) // product(datashape[1:])
            datashape = (s0,) + datashape[1:]
        shape = datashape
        if data is not None:
            data = data.reshape(shape)

        if tile and not volume:
            tile = (1, tile[-2], tile[-1])

        if photometric == PALETTE:
            if (samplesperpixel != 1 or extrasamples or
                    shape[1] != 1 or shape[-1] != 1):
                raise ValueError('invalid data shape for palette mode')

        if photometric == RGB and samplesperpixel == 2:
            raise ValueError('not a RGB image (samplesperpixel=2)')

        if bilevel:
            if compresstag not in (1, 32773):
                raise ValueError('cannot compress bilevel image')
            if tile:
                raise ValueError('cannot save tiled bilevel image')
            if photometric not in (0, 1, 4):
                raise ValueError('cannot save bilevel image as %s' %
                                 str(photometric))
            datashape = list(datashape)
            if datashape[-2] % 8:
                datashape[-2] = datashape[-2] // 8 + 1
            else:
                datashape[-2] = datashape[-2] // 8
            datashape = tuple(datashape)
            assert datasize == product(datashape)
            if data is not None:
                data = numpy.packbits(data, axis=-2)
                assert datashape[-2] == data.shape[-2]

        bytestr = bytes if sys.version[0] == '2' else (
            lambda x: bytes(x, 'ascii') if isinstance(x, str) else x)
        tags = []  # list of (code, ifdentry, ifdvalue, writeonce)

        strip_or_tile = 'Tile' if tile else 'Strip'
        tagbytecounts = TIFF.TAG_NAMES[strip_or_tile + 'ByteCounts']
        tag_offsets = TIFF.TAG_NAMES[strip_or_tile + 'Offsets']
        self._tagoffsets = tag_offsets

        def pack(fmt, *val):
            return struct.pack(byteorder+fmt, *val)

        def addtag(code, dtype, count, value, writeonce=False):
            # Compute ifdentry & ifdvalue bytes from code, dtype, count, value
            # Append (code, ifdentry, ifdvalue, writeonce) to tags list
            code = int(TIFF.TAG_NAMES.get(code, code))
            try:
                tifftype = TIFF.DATA_DTYPES[dtype]
            except KeyError:
                raise ValueError('unknown dtype %s' % dtype)
            rawcount = count

            if dtype == 's':
                # strings
                value = bytestr(value) + b'\0'
                count = rawcount = len(value)
                rawcount = value.find(b'\0\0')
                if rawcount < 0:
                    rawcount = count
                else:
                    rawcount += 1  # length of string without buffer
                value = (value,)
            elif isinstance(value, bytes):
                # packed binary data
                dtsize = struct.calcsize(dtype)
                if len(value) % dtsize:
                    raise ValueError('invalid packed binary data')
                count = len(value) // dtsize
            if len(dtype) > 1:
                count *= int(dtype[:-1])
                dtype = dtype[-1]
            ifdentry = [pack('HH', code, tifftype),
                        pack(offsetformat, rawcount)]
            ifdvalue = None
            if struct.calcsize(dtype) * count <= offsetsize:
                # value(s) can be written directly
                if isinstance(value, bytes):
                    ifdentry.append(pack(valueformat, value))
                elif count == 1:
                    if isinstance(value, (tuple, list, numpy.ndarray)):
                        value = value[0]
                    ifdentry.append(pack(valueformat, pack(dtype, value)))
                else:
                    ifdentry.append(pack(valueformat,
                                         pack(str(count)+dtype, *value)))
            else:
                # use offset to value(s)
                ifdentry.append(pack(offsetformat, 0))
                if isinstance(value, bytes):
                    ifdvalue = value
                elif isinstance(value, numpy.ndarray):
                    assert value.size == count
                    assert value.dtype.char == dtype
                    ifdvalue = value.tostring()
                elif isinstance(value, (tuple, list)):
                    ifdvalue = pack(str(count)+dtype, *value)
                else:
                    ifdvalue = pack(dtype, value)
            tags.append((code, b''.join(ifdentry), ifdvalue, writeonce))

        def rational(arg, max_denominator=1000000):
            """"Return nominator and denominator from float or two integers."""
            from fractions import Fraction  # delayed import
            try:
                f = Fraction.from_float(arg)
            except TypeError:
                f = Fraction(arg[0], arg[1])
            f = f.limit_denominator(max_denominator)
            return f.numerator, f.denominator

        if description:
            # user provided description
            addtag('ImageDescription', 's', 0, description, writeonce=True)

        # write shape and metadata to ImageDescription
        self._metadata = {} if not metadata else metadata.copy()
        if self._imagej:
            description = imagej_description(
                input_shape, shape[-1] in (3, 4), self._colormap is not None,
                **self._metadata)
        elif metadata or metadata == {}:
            if self._truncate:
                self._metadata.update(truncated=True)
            description = json_description(input_shape, **self._metadata)
        else:
            description = None
        if description:
            # add 64 bytes buffer
            # the image description might be updated later with the final shape
            description = str2bytes(description, 'ascii')
            description += b'\0' * 64
            self._descriptionlen = len(description)
            addtag('ImageDescription', 's', 0, description, writeonce=True)

        if software:
            addtag('Software', 's', 0, software, writeonce=True)
        if datetime is None:
            datetime = self._now()
        addtag('DateTime', 's', 0, datetime.strftime('%Y:%m:%d %H:%M:%S'),
               writeonce=True)
        addtag('Compression', 'H', 1, compresstag)
        if predictor:
            addtag('Predictor', 'H', 1, predictortag)
        addtag('ImageWidth', 'I', 1, shape[-2])
        addtag('ImageLength', 'I', 1, shape[-3])
        if tile:
            addtag('TileWidth', 'I', 1, tile[-1])
            addtag('TileLength', 'I', 1, tile[-2])
            if tile[0] > 1:
                addtag('ImageDepth', 'I', 1, shape[-4])
                addtag('TileDepth', 'I', 1, tile[0])
        addtag('NewSubfileType', 'I', 1, subfiletype)
        if not bilevel:
            sampleformat = {'u': 1, 'i': 2, 'f': 3, 'c': 6}[datadtype.kind]
            addtag('SampleFormat', 'H', samplesperpixel,
                   (sampleformat,) * samplesperpixel)
        addtag('PhotometricInterpretation', 'H', 1, photometric.value)
        if colormap is not None:
            addtag('ColorMap', 'H', colormap.size, colormap)
        addtag('SamplesPerPixel', 'H', 1, samplesperpixel)
        if bilevel:
            pass
        elif planarconfig and samplesperpixel > 1:
            addtag('PlanarConfiguration', 'H', 1, planarconfig.value)
            addtag('BitsPerSample', 'H', samplesperpixel,
                   (datadtype.itemsize * 8,) * samplesperpixel)
        else:
            addtag('BitsPerSample', 'H', 1, datadtype.itemsize * 8)
        if extrasamples:
            if extrasamples_ is not None:
                if extrasamples != len(extrasamples_):
                    raise ValueError('wrong number of extrasamples specified')
                addtag('ExtraSamples', 'H', extrasamples, extrasamples_)
            elif photometric == RGB and extrasamples == 1:
                # Unassociated alpha channel
                addtag('ExtraSamples', 'H', 1, 2)
            else:
                # Unspecified alpha channel
                addtag('ExtraSamples', 'H', extrasamples, (0,) * extrasamples)
        if resolution is not None:
            addtag('XResolution', '2I', 1, rational(resolution[0]))
            addtag('YResolution', '2I', 1, rational(resolution[1]))
            if len(resolution) > 2:
                unit = resolution[2]
                unit = 1 if unit is None else enumarg(TIFF.RESUNIT, unit)
            elif self._imagej:
                unit = 1
            else:
                unit = 2
            addtag('ResolutionUnit', 'H', 1, unit)
        elif not self._imagej:
            addtag('XResolution', '2I', 1, (1, 1))
            addtag('YResolution', '2I', 1, (1, 1))
            addtag('ResolutionUnit', 'H', 1, 1)
        if ijmetadata:
            for t in imagej_metadata_tag(ijmetadata, byteorder):
                addtag(*t)

        contiguous = not compress
        if tile:
            # one chunk per tile per plane
            tiles = ((shape[2] + tile[0] - 1) // tile[0],
                     (shape[3] + tile[1] - 1) // tile[1],
                     (shape[4] + tile[2] - 1) // tile[2])
            numtiles = product(tiles) * shape[1]
            stripbytecounts = [
                product(tile) * shape[-1] * datadtype.itemsize] * numtiles
            addtag(tagbytecounts, offsetformat, numtiles, stripbytecounts)
            addtag(tag_offsets, offsetformat, numtiles, [0] * numtiles)
            contiguous = contiguous and product(tiles) == 1
            if not contiguous:
                # allocate tile buffer
                chunk = numpy.empty(tile + (shape[-1],), dtype=datadtype)
        elif contiguous:
            # one strip per plane
            if bilevel:
                stripbytecounts = [product(datashape[2:])] * shape[1]
            else:
                stripbytecounts = [
                    product(datashape[2:]) * datadtype.itemsize] * shape[1]
            addtag(tagbytecounts, offsetformat, shape[1], stripbytecounts)
            addtag(tag_offsets, offsetformat, shape[1], [0] * shape[1])
            addtag('RowsPerStrip', 'I', 1, shape[-3])
        else:
            # compress rowsperstrip or ~64 KB chunks
            rowsize = product(shape[-2:]) * datadtype.itemsize
            if rowsperstrip is None:
                rowsperstrip = 65536 // rowsize
            if rowsperstrip < 1:
                rowsperstrip = 1
            elif rowsperstrip > shape[-3]:
                rowsperstrip = shape[-3]
            addtag('RowsPerStrip', 'I', 1, rowsperstrip)

            numstrips = (shape[-3] + rowsperstrip - 1) // rowsperstrip
            numstrips *= shape[1]
            stripbytecounts = [0] * numstrips
            addtag(tagbytecounts, offsetformat, numstrips, [0] * numstrips)
            addtag(tag_offsets, offsetformat, numstrips, [0] * numstrips)

        if data is None and not contiguous:
            raise ValueError('cannot write non-contiguous empty file')

        # add extra tags from user
        for t in extratags:
            addtag(*t)

        # TODO: check TIFFReadDirectoryCheckOrder warning in files containing
        #   multiple tags of same code
        # the entries in an IFD must be sorted in ascending order by tag code
        tags = sorted(tags, key=lambda x: x[0])

        if not (self._bigtiff or self._imagej) and (
                fh.tell() + datasize > 2**32-1):
            raise ValueError('data too large for standard TIFF file')

        # if not compressed or multi-tiled, write the first IFD and then
        # all data contiguously; else, write all IFDs and data interleaved
        for pageindex in range(1 if contiguous else shape[0]):
            # update pointer at ifd_offset
            pos = fh.tell()
            if pos % 2:
                # location of IFD must begin on a word boundary
                fh.write(b'\0')
                pos += 1
            fh.seek(self._ifdoffset)
            fh.write(pack(offsetformat, pos))
            fh.seek(pos)

            # write ifdentries
            fh.write(pack(tagnoformat, len(tags)))
            tag_offset = fh.tell()
            fh.write(b''.join(t[1] for t in tags))
            self._ifdoffset = fh.tell()
            fh.write(pack(offsetformat, 0))  # offset to next IFD

            # write tag values and patch offsets in ifdentries, if necessary
            for tagindex, tag in enumerate(tags):
                if tag[2]:
                    pos = fh.tell()
                    if pos % 2:
                        # tag value is expected to begin on word boundary
                        fh.write(b'\0')
                        pos += 1
                    fh.seek(tag_offset + tagindex*tagsize + offsetsize + 4)
                    fh.write(pack(offsetformat, pos))
                    fh.seek(pos)
                    if tag[0] == tag_offsets:
                        stripoffsetsoffset = pos
                    elif tag[0] == tagbytecounts:
                        strip_bytecounts_offset = pos
                    elif tag[0] == 270 and tag[2].endswith(b'\0\0\0\0'):
                        # image description buffer
                        self._descriptionoffset = pos
                        self._descriptionlenoffset = (
                            tag_offset + tagindex * tagsize + 4)
                    fh.write(tag[2])

            # write image data
            data_offset = fh.tell()
            skip = align - data_offset % align
            fh.seek(skip, 1)
            data_offset += skip
            if contiguous:
                if data is None:
                    fh.write_empty(datasize)
                else:
                    fh.write_array(data)
            elif tile:
                if data is None:
                    fh.write_empty(numtiles * stripbytecounts[0])
                else:
                    stripindex = 0
                    for plane in data[pageindex]:
                        for tz in range(tiles[0]):
                            for ty in range(tiles[1]):
                                for tx in range(tiles[2]):
                                    c0 = min(tile[0], shape[2] - tz*tile[0])
                                    c1 = min(tile[1], shape[3] - ty*tile[1])
                                    c2 = min(tile[2], shape[4] - tx*tile[2])
                                    chunk[c0:, c1:, c2:] = 0
                                    chunk[:c0, :c1, :c2] = plane[
                                        tz*tile[0]:tz*tile[0]+c0,
                                        ty*tile[1]:ty*tile[1]+c1,
                                        tx*tile[2]:tx*tile[2]+c2]
                                    if compress:
                                        t = compress(chunk)
                                        fh.write(t)
                                        stripbytecounts[stripindex] = len(t)
                                        stripindex += 1
                                    else:
                                        fh.write_array(chunk)
                                        fh.flush()
            elif compress:
                # write one strip per rowsperstrip
                assert data.shape[2] == 1  # not handling depth
                numstrips = (shape[-3] + rowsperstrip - 1) // rowsperstrip
                stripindex = 0
                for plane in data[pageindex]:
                    for i in range(numstrips):
                        strip = plane[0, i*rowsperstrip: (i+1)*rowsperstrip]
                        strip = compress(strip)
                        fh.write(strip)
                        stripbytecounts[stripindex] = len(strip)
                        stripindex += 1

            # update strip/tile offsets and bytecounts if necessary
            pos = fh.tell()
            for tagindex, tag in enumerate(tags):
                if tag[0] == tag_offsets:  # strip/tile offsets
                    if tag[2]:
                        fh.seek(stripoffsetsoffset)
                        strip_offset = data_offset
                        for size in stripbytecounts:
                            fh.write(pack(offsetformat, strip_offset))
                            strip_offset += size
                    else:
                        fh.seek(tag_offset + tagindex*tagsize + offsetsize + 4)
                        fh.write(pack(offsetformat, data_offset))
                elif tag[0] == tagbytecounts:  # strip/tile bytecounts
                    if compress:
                        if tag[2]:
                            fh.seek(strip_bytecounts_offset)
                            for size in stripbytecounts:
                                fh.write(pack(offsetformat, size))
                        else:
                            fh.seek(tag_offset + tagindex*tagsize +
                                    offsetsize + 4)
                            fh.write(pack(offsetformat, stripbytecounts[0]))
                    break
            fh.seek(pos)
            fh.flush()

            # remove tags that should be written only once
            if pageindex == 0:
                tags = [tag for tag in tags if not tag[-1]]

        self._shape = shape
        self._datashape = (1,) + input_shape
        self._datadtype = datadtype
        self._dataoffset = data_offset
        self._databytecounts = stripbytecounts

        if contiguous:
            # write remaining IFDs/tags later
            self._tags = tags
            # return offset and size of image data
            if returnoffset:
                return data_offset, sum(stripbytecounts)

    def _write_remaining_pages(self):
        """Write outstanding IFDs and tags to file."""
        if not self._tags or self._truncate:
            return

        fh = self._fh
        fhpos = fh.tell()
        if fhpos % 2:
            fh.write(b'\0')
            fhpos += 1
        byteorder = self._byteorder
        offsetformat = self._offsetformat
        offsetsize = self._offsetsize
        tagnoformat = self._tagnoformat
        tagsize = self._tagsize
        dataoffset = self._dataoffset
        pagedatasize = sum(self._databytecounts)
        pageno = self._shape[0] * self._datashape[0] - 1

        def pack(fmt, *val):
            return struct.pack(byteorder+fmt, *val)

        # construct template IFD in memory
        # need to patch offsets to next IFD and data before writing to disk
        ifd = io.BytesIO()
        ifd.write(pack(tagnoformat, len(self._tags)))
        tagoffset = ifd.tell()
        ifd.write(b''.join(t[1] for t in self._tags))
        ifdoffset = ifd.tell()
        ifd.write(pack(offsetformat, 0))  # offset to next IFD
        # tag values
        for tagindex, tag in enumerate(self._tags):
            offset2value = tagoffset + tagindex*tagsize + offsetsize + 4
            if tag[2]:
                pos = ifd.tell()
                if pos % 2:  # tag value is expected to begin on word boundary
                    ifd.write(b'\0')
                    pos += 1
                ifd.seek(offset2value)
                try:
                    ifd.write(pack(offsetformat, pos + fhpos))
                except Exception:  # struct.error
                    if self._imagej:
                        warnings.warn('truncating ImageJ file')
                        self._truncate = True
                        return
                    raise ValueError('data too large for non-BigTIFF file')
                ifd.seek(pos)
                ifd.write(tag[2])
                if tag[0] == self._tagoffsets:
                    # save strip/tile offsets for later updates
                    stripoffset2offset = offset2value
                    stripoffset2value = pos
            elif tag[0] == self._tagoffsets:
                # save strip/tile offsets for later updates
                stripoffset2offset = None
                stripoffset2value = offset2value
        # size to word boundary
        if ifd.tell() % 2:
            ifd.write(b'\0')

        # check if all IFDs fit in file
        pos = fh.tell()
        if not self._bigtiff and pos + ifd.tell() * pageno > 2**32 - 256:
            if self._imagej:
                warnings.warn('truncating ImageJ file')
                self._truncate = True
                return
            raise ValueError('data too large for non-BigTIFF file')

        # TODO: assemble IFD chain in memory
        for _ in range(pageno):
            # update pointer at IFD offset
            pos = fh.tell()
            fh.seek(self._ifdoffset)
            fh.write(pack(offsetformat, pos))
            fh.seek(pos)
            self._ifdoffset = pos + ifdoffset
            # update strip/tile offsets in IFD
            dataoffset += pagedatasize  # offset to image data
            if stripoffset2offset is None:
                ifd.seek(stripoffset2value)
                ifd.write(pack(offsetformat, dataoffset))
            else:
                ifd.seek(stripoffset2offset)
                ifd.write(pack(offsetformat, pos + stripoffset2value))
                ifd.seek(stripoffset2value)
                stripoffset = dataoffset
                for size in self._databytecounts:
                    ifd.write(pack(offsetformat, stripoffset))
                    stripoffset += size
            # write IFD entry
            fh.write(ifd.getvalue())

        self._tags = None
        self._datadtype = None
        self._dataoffset = None
        self._databytecounts = None
        # do not reset _shape or _data_shape

    def _write_image_description(self):
        """Write meta data to ImageDescription tag."""
        if (not self._datashape or self._datashape[0] == 1 or
                self._descriptionoffset <= 0):
            return

        colormapped = self._colormap is not None
        if self._imagej:
            isrgb = self._shape[-1] in (3, 4)
            description = imagej_description(
                self._datashape, isrgb, colormapped, **self._metadata)
        else:
            description = json_description(self._datashape, **self._metadata)

        # rewrite description and its length to file
        description = description.encode('utf-8')
        description = description[:self._descriptionlen-1]
        pos = self._fh.tell()
        self._fh.seek(self._descriptionoffset)
        self._fh.write(description)
        self._fh.seek(self._descriptionlenoffset)
        self._fh.write(struct.pack(self._byteorder+self._offsetformat,
                                   len(description)+1))
        self._fh.seek(pos)

        self._descriptionoffset = 0
        self._descriptionlenoffset = 0
        self._descriptionlen = 0

    def _now(self):
        """Return current date and time."""
        return datetime.datetime.now()

    def close(self):
        """Write remaining pages and close file handle."""
        if not self._truncate:
            self._write_remaining_pages()
        self._write_image_description()
        self._fh.close()

    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
        self.close()


class TiffFile(object):
    """Read image and metadata from TIFF file.

    TiffFile instances must be closed using the 'close' method, which is
    automatically called when using the 'with' context manager.

    Attributes
    ----------
    pages : TiffPages
        Sequence of TIFF pages in file.
    series : list of TiffPageSeries
        Sequences of closely related TIFF pages. These are computed
        from OME, LSM, ImageJ, etc. metadata or based on similarity
        of page properties such as shape, dtype, and compression.
    is_flag : bool
        If True, file is of a certain format.
        Flags are: bigtiff, movie, shaped, ome, imagej, stk, lsm, fluoview,
        nih, vista, micromanager, metaseries, mdgel, mediacy, tvips, fei,
        sem, scn, svs, scanimage, andor, epics, ndpi, pilatus, qptiff.

    All attributes are read-only.

    """
    def __init__(self, arg, name=None, offset=None, size=None,
                 multifile=True, movie=None, **kwargs):
        """Initialize instance from file.

        Parameters
        ----------
        arg : str or open file
            Name of file or open file object.
            The file objects are closed in TiffFile.close().
        name : str
            Optional name of file in case 'arg' is a file handle.
        offset : int
            Optional start position of embedded file. By default, this is
            the current file position.
        size : int
            Optional size of embedded file. By default, this is the number
            of bytes from the 'offset' to the end of the file.
        multifile : bool
            If True (default), series may include pages from multiple files.
            Currently applies to OME-TIFF only.
        movie : bool
            If True, assume that later pages differ from first page only by
            data offsets and byte counts. Significantly increases speed and
            reduces memory usage when reading movies with thousands of pages.
            Enabling this for non-movie files will result in data corruption
            or crashes. Python 3 only.
        kwargs : bool
            'is_ome': If False, disable processing of OME-XML metadata.

        """
        if 'fastij' in kwargs:
            del kwargs['fastij']
            raise DeprecationWarning('the fastij option will be removed')
        for key, value in kwargs.items():
            if key[:3] == 'is_' and key[3:] in TIFF.FILE_FLAGS:
                if value is not None and not value:
                    setattr(self, key, bool(value))
            else:
                raise TypeError('unexpected keyword argument: %s' % key)

        fh = FileHandle(arg, mode='rb', name=name, offset=offset, size=size)
        self._fh = fh
        self._multifile = bool(multifile)
        self._files = {fh.name: self}  # cache of TiffFiles
        try:
            fh.seek(0)
            header = fh.read(4)
            try:
                byteorder = {b'II': '<', b'MM': '>'}[header[:2]]
            except KeyError:
                raise ValueError('not a TIFF file')

            version = struct.unpack(byteorder+'H', header[2:4])[0]
            if version == 43:
                # BigTiff
                offsetsize, zero = struct.unpack(byteorder+'HH', fh.read(4))
                if zero != 0 or offsetsize != 8:
                    raise ValueError('invalid BigTIFF file')
                if byteorder == '>':
                    self.tiff = TIFF.BIG_BE
                else:
                    self.tiff = TIFF.BIG_LE
            elif version == 42:
                # Classic TIFF
                if byteorder == '>':
                    self.tiff = TIFF.CLASSIC_BE
                else:
                    self.tiff = TIFF.CLASSIC_LE
            else:
                raise ValueError('invalid TIFF file')

            # file handle is at offset to offset to first page
            self.pages = TiffPages(self)

            # TODO: fix offsets in NDPI file > 4 GB

            if self.is_lsm and (self.filehandle.size >= 2**32 or
                                self.pages[0].compression != 1 or
                                self.pages[1].compression != 1):
                self._lsm_load_pages()
                self._lsm_fix_strip_offsets()
                self._lsm_fix_strip_bytecounts()
            elif movie:
                self.pages.useframes = True

        except Exception:
            fh.close()
            raise

    @property
    def byteorder(self):
        return self.tiff.byteorder

    @property
    def is_bigtiff(self):
        return self.tiff.version == 43

    @property
    def filehandle(self):
        """Return file handle."""
        return self._fh

    @property
    def filename(self):
        """Return name of file handle."""
        return self._fh.name

    @lazyattr
    def fstat(self):
        """Return status of file handle as stat_result object."""
        try:
            return os.fstat(self._fh.fileno())
        except Exception:  # io.UnsupportedOperation
            return None

    def close(self):
        """Close open file handle(s)."""
        for tif in self._files.values():
            tif.filehandle.close()
        self._files = {}

    def asarray(self, key=None, series=None, out=None, validate=True,
                maxworkers=None):
        """Return image data from multiple TIFF pages as numpy array.

        By default, the data from the first series is returned.

        Parameters
        ----------
        key : int, slice, or sequence of page indices
            Defines which pages to return as array.
        series : int or TiffPageSeries
            Defines which series of pages to return as array.
        out : numpy.ndarray, str, or file-like object; optional
            Buffer where image data will be saved.
            If None (default), a new array will be created.
            If numpy.ndarray, a writable array of compatible dtype and shape.
            If 'memmap', directly memory-map the image data in the TIFF file
            if possible; else create a memory-mapped array in a temporary file.
            If str or open file, the file name or file object used to
            create a memory-map to an array stored in a binary file on disk.
        validate : bool
            If True (default), validate various tags.
            Passed to TiffPage.asarray().
        maxworkers : int or None
            Maximum number of threads to concurrently get data from pages
            or tiles. If None (default), mutli-threading is enabled if data
            are compressed. If 0, up to half the CPU cores are used.
            If 1, mutli-threading is disabled.
            Reading data from file is limited to a single thread.
            Using multiple threads can significantly speed up this function
            if the bottleneck is decoding compressed data, e.g. in case of
            large LZW compressed LSM files or JPEG compressed tiled slides.
            If the bottleneck is I/O or pure Python code, using multiple
            threads might be detrimental.

        Returns
        -------
        numpy.ndarray
            Image data from the specified pages.
            See the TiffPage.asarray function for what kind of operations are
            applied (or not) to the raw data stored in the file.

        """
        if not self.pages:
            return numpy.array([])
        if key is None and series is None:
            series = 0
        if series is not None:
            try:
                series = self.series[series]
            except (KeyError, TypeError):
                pass
            pages = series._pages
        else:
            pages = self.pages

        if key is None:
            pass
        elif isinstance(key, inttypes):
            pages = [pages[key]]
        elif isinstance(key, slice):
            pages = pages[key]
        elif isinstance(key, collections.Iterable):
            pages = [pages[k] for k in key]
        else:
            raise TypeError('key must be an int, slice, or sequence')

        if not pages:
            raise ValueError('no pages selected')

        if self.is_nih:
            result = stack_pages(pages, out=out, maxworkers=maxworkers,
                                 squeeze=False)
        elif key is None and series and series.offset:
            typecode = self.byteorder + series.dtype.char
            if out == 'memmap' and pages[0].is_memmappable:
                result = self.filehandle.memmap_array(
                    typecode, series.shape, series.offset)
            else:
                if out is not None:
                    out = create_output(out, series.shape, series.dtype)
                self.filehandle.seek(series.offset)
                result = self.filehandle.read_array(
                    typecode, product(series.shape), out=out, native=True)
        elif len(pages) == 1:
            result = pages[0].asarray(out=out, validate=validate,
                                      maxworkers=maxworkers)
        else:
            result = stack_pages(pages, out=out, maxworkers=maxworkers)

        if result is None:
            return

        if key is None:
            try:
                result.shape = series.shape
            except ValueError:
                try:
                    warnings.warn('failed to reshape %s to %s' % (
                        result.shape, series.shape))
                    # try series of expected shapes
                    result.shape = (-1,) + series.shape
                except ValueError:
                    # revert to generic shape
                    result.shape = (-1,) + pages[0].shape
        elif len(pages) == 1:
            result.shape = pages[0].shape
        else:
            result.shape = (-1,) + pages[0].shape
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def series(self):
        """Return related pages as TiffPageSeries.

        Side effect: after calling this function, TiffFile.pages might contain
        TiffPage and TiffFrame instances.

        """
        if not self.pages:
            return []

        useframes = self.pages.useframes
        keyframe = self.pages.keyframe
        series = []
        for name in 'ome imagej lsm fluoview nih mdgel sis shaped'.split():
            if getattr(self, 'is_' + name, False):
                series = getattr(self, '_%s_series' % name)()
                break
        self.pages.useframes = useframes
        self.pages.keyframe = keyframe
        if not series:
            series = self._generic_series()

        # remove empty series, e.g. in MD Gel files
        series = [s for s in series if product(s.shape) > 0]

        for i, s in enumerate(series):
            s.index = i
        return series

    def _generic_series(self):
        """Return image series in file."""
        if self.pages.useframes:
            # movie mode
            page = self.pages[0]
            shape = page.shape
            axes = page.axes
            if len(self.pages) > 1:
                shape = (len(self.pages),) + shape
                axes = 'I' + axes
            return [TiffPageSeries(self.pages[:], shape, page.dtype, axes,
                                   stype='movie')]

        self.pages.clear(False)
        self.pages.load()
        result = []
        keys = []
        series = {}
        compressions = TIFF.DECOMPESSORS
        for page in self.pages:
            if not page.shape or product(page.shape) == 0:
                continue
            key = page.shape + (page.axes, page.compression in compressions)
            if key in series:
                series[key].append(page)
            else:
                keys.append(key)
                series[key] = [page]
        for key in keys:
            pages = series[key]
            page = pages[0]
            shape = page.shape
            axes = page.axes
            if len(pages) > 1:
                shape = (len(pages),) + shape
                axes = 'I' + axes
            result.append(TiffPageSeries(pages, shape, page.dtype, axes,
                                         stype='Generic'))

        return result

    def _shaped_series(self):
        """Return image series in "shaped" file."""
        pages = self.pages
        pages.useframes = True
        lenpages = len(pages)

        def append_series(series, pages, axes, shape, reshape, name,
                          truncated):
            page = pages[0]
            if not axes:
                shape = page.shape
                axes = page.axes
                if len(pages) > 1:
                    shape = (len(pages),) + shape
                    axes = 'Q' + axes
            size = product(shape)
            resize = product(reshape)
            if page.is_contiguous and resize > size and resize % size == 0:
                if truncated is None:
                    truncated = True
                axes = 'Q' + axes
                shape = (resize // size,) + shape
            try:
                axes = reshape_axes(axes, shape, reshape)
                shape = reshape
            except ValueError as e:
                warnings.warn(str(e))
            series.append(
                TiffPageSeries(pages, shape, page.dtype, axes, name=name,
                               stype='Shaped', truncated=truncated))

        keyframe = axes = shape = reshape = name = None
        series = []
        index = 0
        while True:
            if index >= lenpages:
                break
            # new keyframe; start of new series
            pages.keyframe = index
            keyframe = pages[index]
            if not keyframe.is_shaped:
                warnings.warn('invalid shape metadata or corrupted file')
                return
            # read metadata
            axes = None
            shape = None
            metadata = json_description_metadata(keyframe.is_shaped)
            name = metadata.get('name', '')
            reshape = metadata['shape']
            truncated = metadata.get('truncated', None)
            if 'axes' in metadata:
                axes = metadata['axes']
                if len(axes) == len(reshape):
                    shape = reshape
                else:
                    axes = ''
                    warnings.warn('axes do not match shape')
            # skip pages if possible
            spages = [keyframe]
            size = product(reshape)
            npages, mod = divmod(size, product(keyframe.shape))
            if mod:
                warnings.warn('series shape does not match page shape')
                return
            if 1 < npages <= lenpages - index:
                size *= keyframe._dtype.itemsize
                if truncated:
                    npages = 1
                elif (keyframe.is_final and
                      keyframe.offset + size < pages[index+1].offset):
                    truncated = False
                else:
                    # need to read all pages for series
                    truncated = False
                    for j in range(index+1, index+npages):
                        page = pages[j]
                        page.keyframe = keyframe
                        spages.append(page)
            append_series(series, spages, axes, shape, reshape, name,
                          truncated)
            index += npages

        return series

    def _imagej_series(self):
        """Return image series in ImageJ file."""
        # ImageJ's dimension order is always TZCYXS
        # TODO: fix loading of color, composite, or palette images
        self.pages.useframes = True
        self.pages.keyframe = 0

        ij = self.imagej_metadata
        pages = self.pages
        page = pages[0]

        def is_hyperstack():
            # ImageJ hyperstack store all image metadata in the first page and
            # image data are stored contiguously before the second page, if any
            if not page.is_final:
                return False
            images = ij.get('images', 0)
            if images <= 1:
                return False
            offset, count = page.is_contiguous
            if (count != product(page.shape) * page.bitspersample // 8
                    or offset + count*images > self.filehandle.size):
                raise ValueError()
            # check that next page is stored after data
            if len(pages) > 1 and offset + count*images > pages[1].offset:
                return False
            return True

        try:
            hyperstack = is_hyperstack()
        except ValueError:
            warnings.warn('invalid ImageJ metadata or corrupted file')
            return
        if hyperstack:
            # no need to read other pages
            pages = [page]
        else:
            self.pages.load()

        shape = []
        axes = []
        if 'frames' in ij:
            shape.append(ij['frames'])
            axes.append('T')
        if 'slices' in ij:
            shape.append(ij['slices'])
            axes.append('Z')
        if 'channels' in ij and not (page.photometric == 2 and not
                                     ij.get('hyperstack', False)):
            shape.append(ij['channels'])
            axes.append('C')
        remain = ij.get('images', len(pages))//(product(shape) if shape else 1)
        if remain > 1:
            shape.append(remain)
            axes.append('I')
        if page.axes[0] == 'I':
            # contiguous multiple images
            shape.extend(page.shape[1:])
            axes.extend(page.axes[1:])
        elif page.axes[:2] == 'SI':
            # color-mapped contiguous multiple images
            shape = page.shape[0:1] + tuple(shape) + page.shape[2:]
            axes = list(page.axes[0]) + axes + list(page.axes[2:])
        else:
            shape.extend(page.shape)
            axes.extend(page.axes)

        truncated = (
            hyperstack and len(self.pages) == 1 and
            page.is_contiguous[1] != product(shape) * page.bitspersample // 8)

        return [TiffPageSeries(pages, shape, page.dtype, axes, stype='ImageJ',
                               truncated=truncated)]

    def _fluoview_series(self):
        """Return image series in FluoView file."""
        self.pages.useframes = True
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        self.pages.load()
        mm = self.fluoview_metadata
        mmhd = list(reversed(mm['Dimensions']))
        axes = ''.join(TIFF.MM_DIMENSIONS.get(i[0].upper(), 'Q')
                       for i in mmhd if i[1] > 1)
        shape = tuple(int(i[1]) for i in mmhd if i[1] > 1)
        return [TiffPageSeries(self.pages, shape, self.pages[0].dtype, axes,
                               name=mm['ImageName'], stype='FluoView')]

    def _mdgel_series(self):
        """Return image series in MD Gel file."""
        # only a single page, scaled according to metadata in second page
        self.pages.useframes = False
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        self.pages.load()
        md = self.mdgel_metadata
        if md['FileTag'] in (2, 128):
            dtype = numpy.dtype('float32')
            scale = md['ScalePixel']
            scale = scale[0] / scale[1]  # rational
            if md['FileTag'] == 2:
                # squary root data format
                def transform(a):
                    return a.astype('float32')**2 * scale
            else:
                def transform(a):
                    return a.astype('float32') * scale
        else:
            transform = None
        page = self.pages[0]
        return [TiffPageSeries([page], page.shape, dtype, page.axes,
                               transform=transform, stype='MDGel')]

    def _sis_series(self):
        """Return image series in Olympus SIS file."""
        self.pages.useframes = True
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        self.pages.load()
        page0 = self.pages[0]
        md = self.sis_metadata
        if 'shape' in md and 'axes' in md:
            shape = md['shape'] + page0.shape
            axes = md['axes'] + page0.axes
        elif len(self.pages) == 1:
            shape = page0.shape
            axes = page0.axes
        else:
            shape = (len(self.pages),) + page0.shape
            axes = 'I' + page0.axes
        return [
            TiffPageSeries(self.pages, shape, page0.dtype, axes, stype='SIS')]

    def _nih_series(self):
        """Return image series in NIH file."""
        self.pages.useframes = True
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        self.pages.load()
        page0 = self.pages[0]
        if len(self.pages) == 1:
            shape = page0.shape
            axes = page0.axes
        else:
            shape = (len(self.pages),) + page0.shape
            axes = 'I' + page0.axes
        return [
            TiffPageSeries(self.pages, shape, page0.dtype, axes, stype='NIH')]

    def _ome_series(self):
        """Return image series in OME-TIFF file(s)."""
        from xml.etree import cElementTree as etree  # delayed import
        omexml = self.pages[0].description
        try:
            root = etree.fromstring(omexml)
        except etree.ParseError as e:
            # TODO: test badly encoded OME-XML
            warnings.warn('ome-xml: %s' % e)
            try:
                # might work on Python 2
                omexml = omexml.decode('utf-8', 'ignore').encode('utf-8')
                root = etree.fromstring(omexml)
            except Exception:
                return

        self.pages.useframes = True
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        self.pages.load()

        uuid = root.attrib.get('UUID', None)
        self._files = {uuid: self}
        dirname = self._fh.dirname
        modulo = {}
        series = []
        for element in root:
            if element.tag.endswith('BinaryOnly'):
                # TODO: load OME-XML from master or companion file
                warnings.warn('ome-xml: not an ome-tiff master file')
                break
            if element.tag.endswith('StructuredAnnotations'):
                for annot in element:
                    if not annot.attrib.get('Namespace',
                                            '').endswith('modulo'):
                        continue
                    for value in annot:
                        for modul in value:
                            for along in modul:
                                if not along.tag[:-1].endswith('Along'):
                                    continue
                                axis = along.tag[-1]
                                newaxis = along.attrib.get('Type', 'other')
                                newaxis = TIFF.AXES_LABELS[newaxis]
                                if 'Start' in along.attrib:
                                    step = float(along.attrib.get('Step', 1))
                                    start = float(along.attrib['Start'])
                                    stop = float(along.attrib['End']) + step
                                    labels = numpy.arange(start, stop, step)
                                else:
                                    labels = [label.text for label in along
                                              if label.tag.endswith('Label')]
                                modulo[axis] = (newaxis, labels)

            if not element.tag.endswith('Image'):
                continue

            attr = element.attrib
            name = attr.get('Name', None)

            for pixels in element:
                if not pixels.tag.endswith('Pixels'):
                    continue
                attr = pixels.attrib
                dtype = attr.get('PixelType', None)
                axes = ''.join(reversed(attr['DimensionOrder']))
                shape = list(int(attr['Size'+ax]) for ax in axes)
                size = product(shape[:-2])
                ifds = None
                spp = 1  # samples per pixel
                # FIXME: this implementation assumes the last two
                # dimensions are stored in tiff pages (shape[:-2]).
                # Apparently that is not always the case.
                for data in pixels:
                    if data.tag.endswith('Channel'):
                        attr = data.attrib
                        if ifds is None:
                            spp = int(attr.get('SamplesPerPixel', spp))
                            ifds = [None] * (size // spp)
                        elif int(attr.get('SamplesPerPixel', 1)) != spp:
                            raise ValueError(
                                "cannot handle differing SamplesPerPixel")
                        continue
                    if ifds is None:
                        ifds = [None] * (size // spp)
                    if not data.tag.endswith('TiffData'):
                        continue
                    attr = data.attrib
                    ifd = int(attr.get('IFD', 0))
                    num = int(attr.get('NumPlanes', 1 if 'IFD' in attr else 0))
                    num = int(attr.get('PlaneCount', num))
                    idx = [int(attr.get('First'+ax, 0)) for ax in axes[:-2]]
                    try:
                        idx = numpy.ravel_multi_index(idx, shape[:-2])
                    except ValueError:
                        # ImageJ produces invalid ome-xml when cropping
                        warnings.warn('ome-xml: invalid TiffData index')
                        continue
                    for uuid in data:
                        if not uuid.tag.endswith('UUID'):
                            continue
                        if uuid.text not in self._files:
                            if not self._multifile:
                                # abort reading multifile OME series
                                # and fall back to generic series
                                return []
                            fname = uuid.attrib['FileName']
                            try:
                                tif = TiffFile(os.path.join(dirname, fname))
                                tif.pages.useframes = True
                                tif.pages.keyframe = 0
                                tif.pages.load()
                            except (IOError, FileNotFoundError, ValueError):
                                warnings.warn(
                                    "ome-xml: failed to read '%s'" % fname)
                                break
                            self._files[uuid.text] = tif
                            tif.close()
                        pages = self._files[uuid.text].pages
                        try:
                            for i in range(num if num else len(pages)):
                                ifds[idx + i] = pages[ifd + i]
                        except IndexError:
                            warnings.warn('ome-xml: index out of range')
                        # only process first UUID
                        break
                    else:
                        pages = self.pages
                        try:
                            for i in range(num if num else len(pages)):
                                ifds[idx + i] = pages[ifd + i]
                        except IndexError:
                            warnings.warn('ome-xml: index out of range')

                if all(i is None for i in ifds):
                    # skip images without data
                    continue

                # set a keyframe on all IFDs
                keyframe = None
                for i in ifds:
                    # try find a TiffPage
                    if i and i == i.keyframe:
                        keyframe = i
                        break
                if not keyframe:
                    # reload a TiffPage from file
                    for i, keyframe in enumerate(ifds):
                        if keyframe:
                            keyframe.parent.pages.keyframe = keyframe.index
                            keyframe = keyframe.parent.pages[keyframe.index]
                            ifds[i] = keyframe
                            break
                for i in ifds:
                    if i is not None:
                        i.keyframe = keyframe

                dtype = keyframe.dtype
                series.append(
                    TiffPageSeries(ifds, shape, dtype, axes, parent=self,
                                   name=name, stype='OME'))
        for serie in series:
            shape = list(serie.shape)
            for axis, (newaxis, labels) in modulo.items():
                i = serie.axes.index(axis)
                size = len(labels)
                if shape[i] == size:
                    serie.axes = serie.axes.replace(axis, newaxis, 1)
                else:
                    shape[i] //= size
                    shape.insert(i+1, size)
                    serie.axes = serie.axes.replace(axis, axis+newaxis, 1)
            serie.shape = tuple(shape)
        # squeeze dimensions
        for serie in series:
            serie.shape, serie.axes = squeeze_axes(serie.shape, serie.axes)
        return series

    def _lsm_series(self):
        """Return main image series in LSM file. Skip thumbnails."""
        lsmi = self.lsm_metadata
        axes = TIFF.CZ_LSMINFO_SCANTYPE[lsmi['ScanType']]
        if self.pages[0].photometric == 2:  # RGB; more than one channel
            axes = axes.replace('C', '').replace('XY', 'XYC')
        if lsmi.get('DimensionP', 0) > 1:
            axes += 'P'
        if lsmi.get('DimensionM', 0) > 1:
            axes += 'M'
        axes = axes[::-1]
        shape = tuple(int(lsmi[TIFF.CZ_LSMINFO_DIMENSIONS[i]]) for i in axes)
        name = lsmi.get('Name', '')
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        pages = self.pages[::2]
        dtype = pages[0].dtype
        series = [TiffPageSeries(pages, shape, dtype, axes, name=name,
                                 stype='LSM')]

        if self.pages[1].is_reduced:
            self.pages.keyframe = 1
            pages = self.pages[1::2]
            dtype = pages[0].dtype
            cp, i = 1, 0
            while cp < len(pages) and i < len(shape)-2:
                cp *= shape[i]
                i += 1
            shape = shape[:i] + pages[0].shape
            axes = axes[:i] + 'CYX'
            series.append(TiffPageSeries(pages, shape, dtype, axes, name=name,
                                         stype='LSMreduced'))

        return series

    def _lsm_load_pages(self):
        """Load all pages from LSM file."""
        self.pages.cache = True
        self.pages.useframes = True
        # second series: thumbnails
        self.pages.keyframe = 1
        keyframe = self.pages[1]
        for page in self.pages[1::2]:
            page.keyframe = keyframe
        # first series: data
        self.pages.keyframe = 0
        keyframe = self.pages[0]
        for page in self.pages[::2]:
            page.keyframe = keyframe

    def _lsm_fix_strip_offsets(self):
        """Unwrap strip offsets for LSM files greater than 4 GB.

        Each series and position require separate unwrapping (undocumented).

        """
        if self.filehandle.size < 2**32:
            return

        pages = self.pages
        npages = len(pages)
        series = self.series[0]
        axes = series.axes

        # find positions
        positions = 1
        for i in 0, 1:
            if series.axes[i] in 'PM':
                positions *= series.shape[i]

        # make time axis first
        if positions > 1:
            ntimes = 0
            for i in 1, 2:
                if axes[i] == 'T':
                    ntimes = series.shape[i]
                    break
            if ntimes:
                div, mod = divmod(npages, 2*positions*ntimes)
                assert mod == 0
                shape = (positions, ntimes, div, 2)
                indices = numpy.arange(product(shape)).reshape(shape)
                indices = numpy.moveaxis(indices, 1, 0)
        else:
            indices = numpy.arange(npages).reshape(-1, 2)

        # images of reduced page might be stored first
        if pages[0].dataoffsets[0] > pages[1].dataoffsets[0]:
            indices = indices[..., ::-1]

        # unwrap offsets
        wrap = 0
        previousoffset = 0
        for i in indices.flat:
            page = pages[i]
            dataoffsets = []
            for currentoffset in page.dataoffsets:
                if currentoffset < previousoffset:
                    wrap += 2**32
                dataoffsets.append(currentoffset + wrap)
                previousoffset = currentoffset
            page.dataoffsets = tuple(dataoffsets)

    def _lsm_fix_strip_bytecounts(self):
        """Set databytecounts to size of compressed data.

        The StripByteCounts tag in LSM files contains the number of bytes
        for the uncompressed data.

        """
        pages = self.pages
        if pages[0].compression == 1:
            return
        # sort pages by first strip offset
        pages = sorted(pages, key=lambda p: p.dataoffsets[0])
        npages = len(pages) - 1
        for i, page in enumerate(pages):
            if page.index % 2:
                continue
            offsets = page.dataoffsets
            bytecounts = page.databytecounts
            if i < npages:
                lastoffset = pages[i+1].dataoffsets[0]
            else:
                # LZW compressed strips might be longer than uncompressed
                lastoffset = min(offsets[-1] + 2*bytecounts[-1], self._fh.size)
            offsets = offsets + (lastoffset,)
            page.databytecounts = tuple(offsets[j+1] - offsets[j]
                                        for j in range(len(bytecounts)))

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        """Return 'is_flag' attributes from first page."""
        if name[3:] in TIFF.FILE_FLAGS:
            if not self.pages:
                return False
            value = bool(getattr(self.pages[0], name))
            setattr(self, name, value)
            return value
        raise AttributeError("'%s' object has no attribute '%s'" %
                             (self.__class__.__name__, name))

    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
        self.close()

    def __str__(self, detail=0, width=79):
        """Return string containing information about file.

        The detail parameter specifies the level of detail returned:

        0: file only.
        1: all series, first page of series and its tags.
        2: large tag values and file metadata.
        3: all pages.

        """
        info = [
            "TiffFile '%s'",
            format_size(self._fh.size),
            '' if byteorder_isnative(self.tiff.byteorder) else {
                '<': 'little-endian', '>': 'big-endian'}[self.tiff.byteorder]]
        if self.is_bigtiff:
            info.append('BigTiff')
        info.append(' '.join(f.lower() for f in self.flags))
        if len(self.pages) > 1:
            info.append('%i Pages' % len(self.pages))
        if len(self.series) > 1:
            info.append('%i Series' % len(self.series))
        if len(self._files) > 1:
            info.append('%i Files' % (len(self._files)))
        info = '  '.join(info)
        info = info.replace('    ', '  ').replace('   ', '  ')
        info = info % snipstr(self._fh.name, max(12, width+2-len(info)))
        if detail <= 0:
            return info
        info = [info]
        info.append('\n'.join(str(s) for s in self.series))
        if detail >= 3:
            info.extend((TiffPage.__str__(p, detail=detail, width=width)
                         for p in self.pages
                         if p is not None))
        else:
            info.extend((TiffPage.__str__(s.pages[0], detail=detail,
                                          width=width)
                         for s in self.series
                         if s.pages[0] is not None))
        if detail >= 2:
            for name in sorted(self.flags):
                if hasattr(self, name + '_metadata'):
                    m = getattr(self, name + '_metadata')
                    if m:
                        info.append(
                            '%s_METADATA\n%s' % (name.upper(),
                                                 pformat(m, width=width,
                                                         height=detail*12)))
        return '\n\n'.join(info).replace('\n\n\n', '\n\n')

    @lazyattr
    def flags(self):
        """Return set of file flags."""
        return set(name.lower() for name in sorted(TIFF.FILE_FLAGS)
                   if getattr(self, 'is_' + name))

    @lazyattr
    def is_mdgel(self):
        """File has MD Gel format."""
        try:
            return self.pages[0].is_mdgel or self.pages[1].is_mdgel
        except IndexError:
            return False

    @property
    def is_movie(self):
        """Return if file is a movie."""
        return self.pages.useframes

    @lazyattr
    def shaped_metadata(self):
        """Return tifffile metadata from JSON descriptions as dicts."""
        if not self.is_shaped:
            return
        return tuple(json_description_metadata(s.pages[0].is_shaped)
                     for s in self.series if s.stype.lower() == 'shaped')

    @lazyattr
    def ome_metadata(self):
        """Return OME XML as dict."""
        # TODO: remove this or return XML?
        if not self.is_ome:
            return
        return xml2dict(self.pages[0].description)['OME']

    @lazyattr
    def qptiff_metadata(self):
        """Return PerkinElmer-QPI-ImageDescription XML element as dict."""
        if not self.is_qptiff:
            return
        root = 'PerkinElmer-QPI-ImageDescription'
        xml = self.pages[0].description.replace(' ' + root + ' ', root)
        return xml2dict(xml)[root]

    @lazyattr
    def lsm_metadata(self):
        """Return LSM metadata from CZ_LSMINFO tag as dict."""
        if not self.is_lsm:
            return
        return self.pages[0].tags['CZ_LSMINFO'].value

    @lazyattr
    def stk_metadata(self):
        """Return STK metadata from UIC tags as dict."""
        if not self.is_stk:
            return
        page = self.pages[0]
        tags = page.tags
        result = {}
        result['NumberPlanes'] = tags['UIC2tag'].count
        if page.description:
            result['PlaneDescriptions'] = page.description.split('\0')
            # result['plane_descriptions'] = stk_description_metadata(
            #    page.image_description)
        if 'UIC1tag' in tags:
            result.update(tags['UIC1tag'].value)
        if 'UIC3tag' in tags:
            result.update(tags['UIC3tag'].value)  # wavelengths
        if 'UIC4tag' in tags:
            result.update(tags['UIC4tag'].value)  # override uic1 tags
        uic2tag = tags['UIC2tag'].value
        result['ZDistance'] = uic2tag['ZDistance']
        result['TimeCreated'] = uic2tag['TimeCreated']
        result['TimeModified'] = uic2tag['TimeModified']
        try:
            result['DatetimeCreated'] = numpy.array(
                [julian_datetime(*dt) for dt in
                 zip(uic2tag['DateCreated'], uic2tag['TimeCreated'])],
                dtype='datetime64[ns]')
            result['DatetimeModified'] = numpy.array(
                [julian_datetime(*dt) for dt in
                 zip(uic2tag['DateModified'], uic2tag['TimeModified'])],
                dtype='datetime64[ns]')
        except ValueError as e:
            warnings.warn('stk_metadata: %s' % e)
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def imagej_metadata(self):
        """Return consolidated ImageJ metadata as dict."""
        if not self.is_imagej:
            return
        page = self.pages[0]
        result = imagej_description_metadata(page.is_imagej)
        if 'IJMetadata' in page.tags:
            try:
                result.update(page.tags['IJMetadata'].value)
            except Exception:
                pass
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def fluoview_metadata(self):
        """Return consolidated FluoView metadata as dict."""
        if not self.is_fluoview:
            return
        result = {}
        page = self.pages[0]
        result.update(page.tags['MM_Header'].value)
        # TODO: read stamps from all pages
        result['Stamp'] = page.tags['MM_Stamp'].value
        # skip parsing image description; not reliable
        # try:
        #     t = fluoview_description_metadata(page.image_description)
        #     if t is not None:
        #         result['ImageDescription'] = t
        # except Exception as e:
        #     warnings.warn(
        #         "failed to read FluoView image description: %s" % e)
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def nih_metadata(self):
        """Return NIH Image metadata from NIHImageHeader tag as dict."""
        if not self.is_nih:
            return
        return self.pages[0].tags['NIHImageHeader'].value

    @lazyattr
    def fei_metadata(self):
        """Return FEI metadata from SFEG or HELIOS tags as dict."""
        if not self.is_fei:
            return
        tags = self.pages[0].tags
        if 'FEI_SFEG' in tags:
            return tags['FEI_SFEG'].value
        if 'FEI_HELIOS' in tags:
            return tags['FEI_HELIOS'].value

    @lazyattr
    def sem_metadata(self):
        """Return SEM metadata from CZ_SEM tag as dict."""
        if not self.is_sem:
            return
        return self.pages[0].tags['CZ_SEM'].value

    @lazyattr
    def sis_metadata(self):
        """Return Olympus SIS metadata from SIS and INI tags as dict."""
        if not self.is_sis:
            return
        tags = self.pages[0].tags
        result = {}
        try:
            result.update(tags['OlympusINI'].value)
        except Exception:
            pass
        try:
            result.update(tags['OlympusSIS'].value)
        except Exception:
            pass
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def mdgel_metadata(self):
        """Return consolidated metadata from MD GEL tags as dict."""
        for page in self.pages[:2]:
            if 'MDFileTag' in page.tags:
                tags = page.tags
                break
        else:
            return
        result = {}
        for code in range(33445, 33453):
            name = TIFF.TAGS[code]
            if name not in tags:
                continue
            result[name[2:]] = tags[name].value
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def andor_metadata(self):
        """Return Andor tags as dict."""
        return self.pages[0].andor_tags

    @lazyattr
    def epics_metadata(self):
        """Return EPICS areaDetector tags as dict."""
        return self.pages[0].epics_tags

    @lazyattr
    def tvips_metadata(self):
        """Return TVIPS tag as dict."""
        if not self.is_tvips:
            return
        return self.pages[0].tags['TVIPS'].value

    @lazyattr
    def metaseries_metadata(self):
        """Return MetaSeries metadata from image description as dict."""
        if not self.is_metaseries:
            return
        return metaseries_description_metadata(self.pages[0].description)

    @lazyattr
    def pilatus_metadata(self):
        """Return Pilatus metadata from image description as dict."""
        if not self.is_pilatus:
            return
        return pilatus_description_metadata(self.pages[0].description)

    @lazyattr
    def micromanager_metadata(self):
        """Return consolidated MicroManager metadata as dict."""
        if not self.is_micromanager:
            return
        # from file header
        result = read_micromanager_metadata(self._fh)
        # from tag
        result.update(self.pages[0].tags['MicroManagerMetadata'].value)
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def scanimage_metadata(self):
        """Return ScanImage non-varying frame and ROI metadata as dict."""
        if not self.is_scanimage:
            return
        result = {}
        try:
            framedata, roidata = read_scanimage_metadata(self._fh)
            result['FrameData'] = framedata
            result.update(roidata)
        except ValueError:
            pass
        # TODO: scanimage_artist_metadata
        try:
            result['Description'] = scanimage_description_metadata(
                self.pages[0].description)
        except Exception as e:
            warnings.warn('scanimage_description_metadata failed: %s' % e)
        return result

    @property
    def geotiff_metadata(self):
        """Return GeoTIFF metadata from first page as dict."""
        if not self.is_geotiff:
            return
        return self.pages[0].geotiff_tags


class TiffPages(object):
    """Sequence of TIFF image file directories."""
    def __init__(self, parent):
        """Initialize instance from file. Read first TiffPage from file.

        The file position must be at an offset to an offset to a TiffPage.

        """
        self.parent = parent
        self.pages = []  # cache of TiffPages, TiffFrames, or their offsets
        self.complete = False  # True if offsets to all pages were read
        self._tiffpage = TiffPage  # class for reading tiff pages
        self._keyframe = None
        self._cache = True

        # read offset to first page
        fh = parent.filehandle
        self._nextpageoffset = fh.tell()
        offset = struct.unpack(parent.tiff.offsetformat,
                               fh.read(parent.tiff.offsetsize))[0]

        if offset == 0:
            # warnings.warn('file contains no pages')
            self.complete = True
            return
        if offset >= fh.size:
            warnings.warn('invalid page offset (%i)' % offset)
            self.complete = True
            return

        # always read and cache first page
        fh.seek(offset)
        page = TiffPage(parent, index=0)
        self.pages.append(page)
        self._keyframe = page

    @property
    def cache(self):
        """Return if pages/frames are currenly being cached."""
        return self._cache

    @cache.setter
    def cache(self, value):
        """Enable or disable caching of pages/frames. Clear cache if False."""
        value = bool(value)
        if self._cache and not value:
            self.clear()
        self._cache = value

    @property
    def useframes(self):
        """Return if currently using TiffFrame (True) or TiffPage (False)."""
        return self._tiffpage == TiffFrame and TiffFrame is not TiffPage

    @useframes.setter
    def useframes(self, value):
        """Set to use TiffFrame (True) or TiffPage (False)."""
        self._tiffpage = TiffFrame if value else TiffPage

    @property
    def keyframe(self):
        """Return index of current keyframe."""
        return self._keyframe.index

    @keyframe.setter
    def keyframe(self, index):
        """Set current keyframe. Load TiffPage from file if necessary."""
        if self._keyframe.index == index:
            return
        if self.complete or 0 <= index < len(self.pages):
            page = self.pages[index]
            if isinstance(page, TiffPage):
                self._keyframe = page
                return
            elif isinstance(page, TiffFrame):
                # remove existing frame
                self.pages[index] = page.offset
        # load TiffPage from file
        useframes = self.useframes
        self._tiffpage = TiffPage
        self._keyframe = self[index]
        self.useframes = useframes

    @property
    def next_page_offset(self):
        """Return offset where offset to a new page can be stored."""
        if not self.complete:
            self._seek(-1)
        return self._nextpageoffset

    def load(self):
        """Read all remaining pages from file."""
        fh = self.parent.filehandle
        keyframe = self._keyframe
        pages = self.pages
        if not self.complete:
            self._seek(-1)
        for i, page in enumerate(pages):
            if isinstance(page, inttypes):
                fh.seek(page)
                page = self._tiffpage(self.parent, index=i, keyframe=keyframe)
                pages[i] = page

    def clear(self, fully=True):
        """Delete all but first page from cache. Set keyframe to first page."""
        pages = self.pages
        if not self._cache or len(pages) < 1:
            return
        self._keyframe = pages[0]
        if fully:
            # delete all but first TiffPage/TiffFrame
            for i, page in enumerate(pages[1:]):
                if not isinstance(page, inttypes):
                    pages[i+1] = page.offset
        elif TiffFrame is not TiffPage:
            # delete only TiffFrames
            for i, page in enumerate(pages):
                if isinstance(page, TiffFrame):
                    pages[i] = page.offset

    def _seek(self, index, maxpages=2**22):
        """Seek file to offset of specified page."""
        pages = self.pages
        if not pages:
            return

        fh = self.parent.filehandle
        if fh.closed:
            raise RuntimeError('FileHandle is closed')

        lenpages = len(pages)

        if self.complete or 0 <= index < lenpages:
            page = pages[index]
            offset = page if isinstance(page, inttypes) else page.offset
            fh.seek(offset)
            return

        tiff = self.parent.tiff
        offsetformat = tiff.offsetformat
        offsetsize = tiff.offsetsize
        tagnoformat = tiff.tagnoformat
        tagnosize = tiff.tagnosize
        tagsize = tiff.tagsize
        unpack = struct.unpack

        page = pages[-1]
        offset = page if isinstance(page, inttypes) else page.offset

        while lenpages < maxpages:
            # read offsets to pages from file until index is reached
            fh.seek(offset)
            # skip tags
            try:
                tagno = unpack(tagnoformat, fh.read(tagnosize))[0]
                if tagno > 4096:
                    raise ValueError('suspicious number of tags: %i' % tagno)
            except Exception:
                warnings.warn('corrupted tag list at offset %i' % offset)
                del pages[-1]
                lenpages -= 1
                self.complete = True
                break
            self._nextpageoffset = offset + tagnosize + tagno * tagsize
            fh.seek(self._nextpageoffset)

            # read offset to next page
            offset = unpack(offsetformat, fh.read(offsetsize))[0]
            if offset == 0:
                self.complete = True
                break
            if offset >= fh.size:
                warnings.warn('invalid page offset (%i)' % offset)
                self.complete = True
                break

            pages.append(offset)
            lenpages += 1
            if 0 <= index < lenpages:
                break

            # detect some circular references
            if lenpages == 100:
                for p in pages[:-1]:
                    if offset == (p if isinstance(p, inttypes) else p.offset):
                        raise IndexError('invalid circular IFD reference')

        if index >= lenpages:
            raise IndexError('list index out of range')

        page = pages[index]
        fh.seek(page if isinstance(page, inttypes) else page.offset)

    def __bool__(self):
        """Return True if file contains any pages."""
        return len(self.pages) > 0

    def __len__(self):
        """Return number of pages in file."""
        if not self.complete:
            self._seek(-1)
        return len(self.pages)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        """Return specified page(s) from cache or file."""
        pages = self.pages
        if not pages:
            raise IndexError('list index out of range')
        if key is 0:
            return pages[key]

        if isinstance(key, slice):
            start, stop, _ = key.indices(2**31-1)
            if not self.complete and max(stop, start) > len(pages):
                self._seek(-1)
            return [self[i] for i in range(*key.indices(len(pages)))]

        if self.complete and key >= len(pages):
            raise IndexError('list index out of range')

        try:
            page = pages[key]
        except IndexError:
            page = 0
        if not isinstance(page, inttypes):
            return page

        self._seek(key)
        page = self._tiffpage(self.parent, index=key, keyframe=self._keyframe)
        if self._cache:
            pages[key] = page
        return page

    def __iter__(self):
        """Return iterator over all pages."""
        i = 0
        while True:
            try:
                yield self[i]
                i += 1
            except IndexError:
                break


class TiffPage(object):
    """TIFF image file directory (IFD).

    Attributes
    ----------
    index : int
        Index of page in file.
    dtype : numpy.dtype or None
        Data type (native byte order) of the image in IFD.
    shape : tuple
        Dimensions of the image in IFD.
    axes : str
        Axes label codes:
        'X' width, 'Y' height, 'S' sample, 'I' image series|page|plane,
        'Z' depth, 'C' color|em-wavelength|channel, 'E' ex-wavelength|lambda,
        'T' time, 'R' region|tile, 'A' angle, 'P' phase, 'H' lifetime,
        'L' exposure, 'V' event, 'Q' unknown, '_' missing
    tags : dict
        Dictionary of tags in IFD. {tag.name: TiffTag}
    colormap : numpy.ndarray
        Color look up table, if exists.

    All attributes are read-only.

    Notes
    -----
    The internal, normalized '_shape' attribute is 6 dimensional:

    0 : number planes/images  (stk, ij).
    1 : planar samplesperpixel.
    2 : imagedepth Z  (sgi).
    3 : imagelength Y.
    4 : imagewidth X.
    5 : contig samplesperpixel.

    """
    # default properties; will be updated from tags
    subfiletype = 0
    imagewidth = 0
    imagelength = 0
    imagedepth = 1
    tilewidth = 0
    tilelength = 0
    tiledepth = 1
    bitspersample = 1
    samplesperpixel = 1
    sampleformat = 1
    rowsperstrip = 2**32-1
    compression = 1
    planarconfig = 1
    fillorder = 1
    photometric = 0
    predictor = 1
    extrasamples = 1
    colormap = None
    software = ''
    description = ''
    description1 = ''

    def __init__(self, parent, index, keyframe=None):
        """Initialize instance from file.

        The file handle position must be at offset to a valid IFD.

        """
        self.parent = parent
        self.index = index
        self.shape = ()
        self._shape = ()
        self.dtype = None
        self._dtype = None
        self.axes = ''
        self.tags = tags = {}
        self.dataoffsets = ()
        self.databytecounts = ()

        tiff = parent.tiff

        # read TIFF IFD structure and its tags from file
        fh = parent.filehandle
        self.offset = fh.tell()  # offset to this IFD
        try:
            tagno = struct.unpack(
                tiff.tagnoformat, fh.read(tiff.tagnosize))[0]
            if tagno > 4096:
                raise ValueError('suspicious number of tags')
        except Exception:
            raise ValueError('corrupted tag list at offset %i' % self.offset)

        tagoffset = self.offset + tiff.tagnosize  # fh.tell()
        tagsize = tiff.tagsize
        tagindex = -tagsize

        data = fh.read(tagsize * tagno)

        for _ in range(tagno):
            tagindex += tagsize
            try:
                tag = TiffTag(parent, data[tagindex:tagindex+tagsize],
                              tagoffset+tagindex)
            except TiffTag.Error as e:
                warnings.warn(str(e))
                continue
            tagname = tag.name
            if tagname not in tags:
                name = tagname
                tags[name] = tag
            else:
                # some files contain multiple tags with same code
                # e.g. MicroManager files contain two ImageDescription tags
                i = 1
                while True:
                    name = '%s%i' % (tagname, i)
                    if name not in tags:
                        tags[name] = tag
                        break
            name = TIFF.TAG_ATTRIBUTES.get(name, '')
            if name:
                if name[:3] in 'sof des' and not isinstance(tag.value, str):
                    pass  # wrong string type for software, description
                else:
                    setattr(self, name, tag.value)

        if not tags:
            return  # found in FIBICS

        if 'SubfileType' in tags and self.subfiletype == 0:
            sft = tags['SubfileType'].value
            if sft == 2:
                self.subfiletype = 0b1  # reduced image
            elif sft == 3:
                self.subfiletype = 0b10  # multi-page

        # consolidate private tags; remove them from self.tags
        if self.is_andor:
            self.andor_tags
        elif self.is_epics:
            self.epics_tags
        # elif self.is_ndpi:
        #     self.ndpi_tags

        if self.is_sis and 'GPSTag' in tags:
            # TODO: can't change tag.name
            tags['OlympusSIS2'] = tags['GPSTag']
            del tags['GPSTag']

        if self.is_lsm or (self.index and self.parent.is_lsm):
            # correct non standard LSM bitspersample tags
            tags['BitsPerSample']._fix_lsm_bitspersample(self)
            if self.compression == 1 and self.predictor != 1:
                # work around bug in LSM510 software
                self.predictor = 1

        if self.is_vista or (self.index and self.parent.is_vista):
            # ISS Vista writes wrong ImageDepth tag
            self.imagedepth = 1

        if self.is_stk and 'UIC1tag' in tags and not tags['UIC1tag'].value:
            # read UIC1tag now that plane count is known
            uic1tag = tags['UIC1tag']
            fh.seek(uic1tag.valueoffset)
            tags['UIC1tag'].value = read_uic1tag(
                fh, tiff.byteorder, uic1tag.dtype,
                uic1tag.count, None, tags['UIC2tag'].count)

        if 'IJMetadata' in tags:
            # decode IJMetadata tag
            try:
                tags['IJMetadata'].value = imagej_metadata(
                    tags['IJMetadata'].value,
                    tags['IJMetadataByteCounts'].value,
                    tiff.byteorder)
            except Exception as e:
                warnings.warn(str(e))

        if 'BitsPerSample' in tags:
            tag = tags['BitsPerSample']
            if tag.count == 1:
                self.bitspersample = tag.value
            else:
                # LSM might list more items than samplesperpixel
                value = tag.value[:self.samplesperpixel]
                if any((v-value[0] for v in value)):
                    self.bitspersample = value
                else:
                    self.bitspersample = value[0]

        if 'SampleFormat' in tags:
            tag = tags['SampleFormat']
            if tag.count == 1:
                self.sampleformat = tag.value
            else:
                value = tag.value[:self.samplesperpixel]
                if any((v-value[0] for v in value)):
                    self.sampleformat = value
                else:
                    self.sampleformat = value[0]

        if 'TileWidth' in tags:
            self.rowsperstrip = None
        elif 'ImageLength' in tags:
            if 'RowsPerStrip' not in tags or tags['RowsPerStrip'].count > 1:
                self.rowsperstrip = self.imagelength
            # self.stripsperimage = int(math.floor(
            #    float(self.imagelength + self.rowsperstrip - 1) /
            #    self.rowsperstrip))

        # determine dtype
        dtype = self.sampleformat, self.bitspersample
        dtype = TIFF.SAMPLE_DTYPES.get(dtype, None)
        if dtype is not None:
            dtype = numpy.dtype(dtype)
        self.dtype = self._dtype = dtype

        # determine shape of data
        imagelength = self.imagelength
        imagewidth = self.imagewidth
        imagedepth = self.imagedepth
        samplesperpixel = self.samplesperpixel

        if self.is_stk:
            assert self.imagedepth == 1
            uictag = tags['UIC2tag'].value
            planes = tags['UIC2tag'].count
            if self.planarconfig == 1:
                self._shape = (
                    planes, 1, 1, imagelength, imagewidth, samplesperpixel)
                if samplesperpixel == 1:
                    self.shape = (planes, imagelength, imagewidth)
                    self.axes = 'YX'
                else:
                    self.shape = (
                        planes, imagelength, imagewidth, samplesperpixel)
                    self.axes = 'YXS'
            else:
                self._shape = (
                    planes, samplesperpixel, 1, imagelength, imagewidth, 1)
                if samplesperpixel == 1:
                    self.shape = (planes, imagelength, imagewidth)
                    self.axes = 'YX'
                else:
                    self.shape = (
                        planes, samplesperpixel, imagelength, imagewidth)
                    self.axes = 'SYX'
            # detect type of series
            if planes == 1:
                self.shape = self.shape[1:]
            elif numpy.all(uictag['ZDistance'] != 0):
                self.axes = 'Z' + self.axes
            elif numpy.all(numpy.diff(uictag['TimeCreated']) != 0):
                self.axes = 'T' + self.axes
            else:
                self.axes = 'I' + self.axes
        elif self.photometric == 2 or samplesperpixel > 1:  # PHOTOMETRIC.RGB
            if self.planarconfig == 1:
                self._shape = (
                    1, 1, imagedepth, imagelength, imagewidth, samplesperpixel)
                if imagedepth == 1:
                    self.shape = (imagelength, imagewidth, samplesperpixel)
                    self.axes = 'YXS'
                else:
                    self.shape = (
                        imagedepth, imagelength, imagewidth, samplesperpixel)
                    self.axes = 'ZYXS'
            else:
                self._shape = (1, samplesperpixel, imagedepth,
                               imagelength, imagewidth, 1)
                if imagedepth == 1:
                    self.shape = (samplesperpixel, imagelength, imagewidth)
                    self.axes = 'SYX'
                else:
                    self.shape = (
                        samplesperpixel, imagedepth, imagelength, imagewidth)
                    self.axes = 'SZYX'
        else:
            self._shape = (1, 1, imagedepth, imagelength, imagewidth, 1)
            if imagedepth == 1:
                self.shape = (imagelength, imagewidth)
                self.axes = 'YX'
            else:
                self.shape = (imagedepth, imagelength, imagewidth)
                self.axes = 'ZYX'

        # dataoffsets and databytecounts
        if 'TileOffsets' in tags:
            self.dataoffsets = tags['TileOffsets'].value
        elif 'StripOffsets' in tags:
            self.dataoffsets = tags['StripOffsets'].value
        else:
            self.dataoffsets = (0,)

        if 'TileByteCounts' in tags:
            self.databytecounts = tags['TileByteCounts'].value
        elif 'StripByteCounts' in tags:
            self.databytecounts = tags['StripByteCounts'].value
        else:
            self.databytecounts = (
                product(self.shape) * (self.bitspersample // 8),)
            if self.compression != 1:
                warnings.warn('required ByteCounts tag is missing')

        # assert len(self.shape) == len(self.axes)

    def asarray(self, out=None, squeeze=True, lock=None, reopen=True,
                maxsize=2**44, maxworkers=None, validate=True):
        """Read image data from file and return as numpy array.

        Raise ValueError if format is unsupported.

        Parameters
        ----------
        out : numpy.ndarray, str, or file-like object; optional
            Buffer where image data will be saved.
            If None (default), a new array will be created.
            If numpy.ndarray, a writable array of compatible dtype and shape.
            If 'memmap', directly memory-map the image data in the TIFF file
            if possible; else create a memory-mapped array in a temporary file.
            If str or open file, the file name or file object used to
            create a memory-map to an array stored in a binary file on disk.
        squeeze : bool
            If True, all length-1 dimensions (except X and Y) are
            squeezed out from the array.
            If False, the shape of the returned array might be different from
            the page.shape.
        lock : {RLock, NullContext}
            A reentrant lock used to syncronize reads from file.
            If None (default), the lock of the parent's filehandle is used.
        reopen : bool
            If True (default) and the parent file handle is closed, the file
            is temporarily re-opened and closed if no exception occurs.
        maxsize: int or None
            Maximum size of data before a ValueError is raised.
            Can be used to catch DOS. Default: 16 TB.
        maxworkers : int or None
            Maximum number of threads to concurrently decode tile data.
            If None (default), up to half the CPU cores are used for
            compressed tiles.
            See remarks in TiffFile.asarray.
        validate : bool
            If True (default), validate various parameters.
            If None, only validate parameters and return None.

        Returns
        -------
        numpy.ndarray
            Numpy array of decompressed, depredicted, and unpacked image data
            read from Strip/Tile Offsets/ByteCounts, formatted according to
            shape and dtype metadata found in tags and parameters.
            Photometric conversion, pre-multiplied alpha, orientation, and
            colorimetry corrections are not applied. Specifically, CMYK images
            are not converted to RGB, MinIsWhite images are not inverted,
            and color palettes are not applied.

        """
        # properties from TiffPage or TiffFrame
        fh = self.parent.filehandle
        byteorder = self.parent.tiff.byteorder
        offsets, bytecounts = self.offsets_bytecounts

        self = self.keyframe  # self or keyframe

        if not self._shape or product(self._shape) == 0:
            return

        tags = self.tags

        if validate or validate is None:
            if maxsize and product(self._shape) > maxsize:
                raise ValueError('data are too large %s' % str(self._shape))
            if self.dtype is None:
                raise ValueError('data type not supported: %s%i' % (
                    self.sampleformat, self.bitspersample))
            if self.compression not in TIFF.DECOMPESSORS:
                raise ValueError(
                    'cannot decompress %s' % self.compression.name)
            if 'SampleFormat' in tags:
                tag = tags['SampleFormat']
                if tag.count != 1 and any((i-tag.value[0] for i in tag.value)):
                    raise ValueError(
                        'sample formats do not match %s' % tag.value)
            if self.is_chroma_subsampled and (self.compression != 7 or
                                              self.planarconfig == 2):
                raise NotImplementedError('chroma subsampling not supported')
            if validate is None:
                return

        lock = fh.lock if lock is None else lock
        with lock:
            closed = fh.closed
            if closed:
                if reopen:
                    fh.open()
                else:
                    raise IOError('file handle is closed')

        dtype = self._dtype
        shape = self._shape
        imagewidth = self.imagewidth
        imagelength = self.imagelength
        imagedepth = self.imagedepth
        bitspersample = self.bitspersample
        typecode = byteorder + dtype.char
        lsb2msb = self.fillorder == 2
        istiled = self.is_tiled

        if istiled:
            tilewidth = self.tilewidth
            tilelength = self.tilelength
            tiledepth = self.tiledepth
            tw = (imagewidth + tilewidth - 1) // tilewidth
            tl = (imagelength + tilelength - 1) // tilelength
            td = (imagedepth + tiledepth - 1) // tiledepth
            shape = (shape[0], shape[1],
                     td*tiledepth, tl*tilelength, tw*tilewidth, shape[-1])
            tileshape = (tiledepth, tilelength, tilewidth, shape[-1])
            tiledshape = (td, tl, tw)
            runlen = tilewidth
        else:
            runlen = imagewidth

        if self.planarconfig == 1:
            runlen *= self.samplesperpixel

        if out == 'memmap' and self.is_memmappable:
            with lock:
                result = fh.memmap_array(typecode, shape, offset=offsets[0])
        elif self.is_contiguous:
            if out is not None:
                out = create_output(out, shape, dtype)
            with lock:
                fh.seek(offsets[0])
                result = fh.read_array(typecode, product(shape), out=out)
            if out is None and not result.dtype.isnative:
                # swap byte order and dtype without copy
                result.byteswap(True)
                result = result.newbyteorder()
            if lsb2msb:
                bitorder_decode(result, out=result)
        else:
            result = create_output(out, shape, dtype)

            decompress = TIFF.DECOMPESSORS[self.compression]

            if self.compression == 7:  # COMPRESSION.JPEG
                outcolorspace = None
                if lsb2msb:
                    warnings.warn('disabling LSB2MSB for JPEG')
                    lsb2msb = False
                if 'JPEGTables' in tags:
                    table = tags['JPEGTables'].value
                else:
                    table = None
                if 'ExtraSamples' in tags:
                    colorspace = None
                else:
                    colorspace = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC(self.photometric).name
                    if colorspace == 'YCBCR':
                        outcolorspace = 'RGB'

                def decompress(data, bitspersample=bitspersample, table=table,
                               colorspace=colorspace,
                               outcolorspace=outcolorspace, out=None,
                               _decompress=decompress):
                    return _decompress(data, bitspersample, table,
                                       colorspace, outcolorspace, out)

                def unpack(data):
                    return data.reshape(-1)

            elif bitspersample in (8, 16, 32, 64, 128):
                if (bitspersample * runlen) % 8:
                    raise ValueError('data and sample size mismatch')
                if self.predictor == 3:  # PREDICTOR.FLOATINGPOINT
                    # the floating point horizontal differencing decoder
                    # needs the raw byte order
                    typecode = dtype.char

                def unpack(data, typecode=typecode, out=None):
                    try:
                        # read only numpy array
                        return numpy.frombuffer(data, typecode)
                    except ValueError:
                        # strips may be missing EOI
                        # warnings.warn('unpack: %s' % e)
                        xlen = ((len(data) // (bitspersample // 8)) *
                                (bitspersample // 8))
                        return numpy.frombuffer(data[:xlen], typecode)

            elif isinstance(bitspersample, tuple):

                def unpack(data, out=None):
                    return unpack_rgb(data, typecode, bitspersample)

            else:

                def unpack(data, out=None):
                    return packints_decode(data, typecode, bitspersample,
                                           runlen)

            if istiled:
                unpredict = TIFF.UNPREDICTORS[self.predictor]

                def tile_decode(tile, tileindex,
                                tileshape=tileshape, tiledshape=tiledshape,
                                lsb2msb=lsb2msb, decompress=decompress,
                                unpack=unpack, unpredict=unpredict,
                                out=result[0]):

                    tw = tileindex % tiledshape[2] * tileshape[2]
                    tl = ((tileindex // tiledshape[2])
                          % tiledshape[1] * tileshape[1])
                    td = ((tileindex // (tiledshape[2] * tiledshape[1]))
                          % tiledshape[0] * tileshape[0])
                    pl = (tileindex // (tiledshape[2] * tiledshape[1]
                                        * tiledshape[0]))

                    if tile:
                        if lsb2msb:
                            tile = bitorder_decode(tile, out=tile)
                        tile = decompress(tile)
                        tile = unpack(tile)
                        try:
                            tile.shape = tileshape
                        except ValueError:
                            t = numpy.zeros(tileshape, tile.dtype)
                            try:
                                s = (min(imagedepth - td, tileshape[0]),
                                     min(imagelength - tl, tileshape[1]),
                                     min(imagewidth - tw, tileshape[2]),
                                     tileshape[3])
                                tile.shape = s
                                t[:s[0], :s[1], :s[2]] = tile
                            except Exception:
                                # incomplete tiles; see gdal issue #1179
                                warnings.warn('invalid tile data %s %s' % (
                                    tile.shape, tileshape))
                                t = t.reshape(-1)
                                s = min(tile.size, t.size)
                                t[:s] = tile[:s]
                            tile = t.reshape(tileshape)
                        tile = unpredict(tile, axis=-2, out=tile)
                    else:
                        tile = 0

                    out[pl,
                        td:td+tileshape[0],
                        tl:tl+tileshape[1],
                        tw:tw+tileshape[2]] = tile

                tile_iter = buffered_read(fh, lock, offsets, bytecounts)
                if maxworkers is None:
                    maxworkers = 0 if self.compression > 1 else 1
                if maxworkers == 0:
                    import multiprocessing  # noqa: delay import
                    maxworkers = multiprocessing.cpu_count() // 2
                if maxworkers < 2:
                    for i, tile in enumerate(tile_iter):
                        tile_decode(tile, i)
                else:
                    # decode first tile un-threaded to catch exceptions
                    tile_decode(next(tile_iter), 0)
                    with concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(maxworkers
                                                               ) as executor:
                        executor.map(tile_decode, tile_iter,
                                     range(1, len(offsets)))

                result = result[..., :imagedepth, :imagelength, :imagewidth, :]

            else:
                strip_size = self.rowsperstrip * self.imagewidth
                if self.planarconfig == 1:
                    strip_size *= self.samplesperpixel
                result = result.reshape(-1)
                index = 0
                for strip in buffered_read(fh, lock, offsets, bytecounts):
                    if lsb2msb:
                        strip = bitorder_decode(strip, out=strip)
                    strip = decompress(strip)
                    strip = unpack(strip)
                    size = min(result.size, strip.size, strip_size,
                               result.size - index)
                    result[index:index+size] = strip[:size]
                    del strip
                    index += size

        result.shape = self._shape

        if self.predictor != 1 and not (istiled and not self.is_contiguous):
            unpredict = TIFF.UNPREDICTORS[self.predictor]
            result = unpredict(result, axis=-2, out=result)

        if squeeze:
            try:
                result.shape = self.shape
            except ValueError:
                warnings.warn('failed to reshape from %s to %s' % (
                    str(result.shape), str(self.shape)))

        if closed:
            # TODO: file should remain open if an exception occurred above
            fh.close()
        return result

    def asrgb(self, uint8=False, alpha=None, colormap=None,
              dmin=None, dmax=None, *args, **kwargs):
        """Return image data as RGB(A).

        Work in progress.

        """
        data = self.asarray(*args, **kwargs)
        self = self.keyframe  # self or keyframe
        photometric = self.photometric
        PHOTOMETRIC = TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC

        if photometric == PHOTOMETRIC.PALETTE:
            colormap = self.colormap
            if (colormap.shape[1] < 2**self.bitspersample or
                    self.dtype.char not in 'BH'):
                raise ValueError('cannot apply colormap')
            if uint8:
                if colormap.max() > 255:
                    colormap >>= 8
                colormap = colormap.astype('uint8')
            if 'S' in self.axes:
                data = data[..., 0] if self.planarconfig == 1 else data[0]
            data = apply_colormap(data, colormap)

        elif photometric == PHOTOMETRIC.RGB:
            if 'ExtraSamples' in self.tags:
                if alpha is None:
                    alpha = TIFF.EXTRASAMPLE
                extrasamples = self.extrasamples
                if self.tags['ExtraSamples'].count == 1:
                    extrasamples = (extrasamples,)
                for i, exs in enumerate(extrasamples):
                    if exs in alpha:
                        if self.planarconfig == 1:
                            data = data[..., [0, 1, 2, 3+i]]
                        else:
                            data = data[:, [0, 1, 2, 3+i]]
                        break
            else:
                if self.planarconfig == 1:
                    data = data[..., :3]
                else:
                    data = data[:, :3]
            # TODO: convert to uint8?

        elif photometric == PHOTOMETRIC.MINISBLACK:
            raise NotImplementedError()
        elif photometric == PHOTOMETRIC.MINISWHITE:
            raise NotImplementedError()
        elif photometric == PHOTOMETRIC.SEPARATED:
            raise NotImplementedError()
        else:
            raise NotImplementedError()
        return data

    def aspage(self):
        return self

    @property
    def keyframe(self):
        return self

    @keyframe.setter
    def keyframe(self, index):
        return

    @lazyattr
    def offsets_bytecounts(self):
        """Return simplified offsets and bytecounts."""
        if self.is_contiguous:
            offset, byte_count = self.is_contiguous
            return [offset], [byte_count]
        if self.is_tiled:
            return self.dataoffsets, self.databytecounts
        return clean_offsets_counts(self.dataoffsets, self.databytecounts)

    @lazyattr
    def is_contiguous(self):
        """Return offset and size of contiguous data, else None.

        Excludes prediction and fill_order.

        """
        if (self.compression != 1
                or self.bitspersample not in (8, 16, 32, 64)):
            return
        if 'TileWidth' in self.tags:
            if (self.imagewidth != self.tilewidth or
                    self.imagelength % self.tilelength or
                    self.tilewidth % 16 or self.tilelength % 16):
                return
            if ('ImageDepth' in self.tags and 'TileDepth' in self.tags and
                    (self.imagelength != self.tilelength or
                     self.imagedepth % self.tiledepth)):
                return

        offsets = self.dataoffsets
        bytecounts = self.databytecounts
        if len(offsets) == 1:
            return offsets[0], bytecounts[0]
        if self.is_stk or all((offsets[i] + bytecounts[i] == offsets[i+1] or
                               bytecounts[i+1] == 0)  # no data/ignore offset
                              for i in range(len(offsets)-1)):
            return offsets[0], sum(bytecounts)

    @lazyattr
    def is_final(self):
        """Return if page's image data are stored in final form.

        Excludes byte-swapping.

        """
        return (self.is_contiguous and self.fillorder == 1 and
                self.predictor == 1 and not self.is_chroma_subsampled)

    @lazyattr
    def is_memmappable(self):
        """Return if page's image data in file can be memory-mapped."""
        return (self.parent.filehandle.is_file and self.is_final and
                # (self.bitspersample == 8 or self.parent.isnative) and
                self.is_contiguous[0] % self.dtype.itemsize == 0)  # aligned?

    def __str__(self, detail=0, width=79):
        """Return string containing information about page."""
        if self.keyframe != self:
            return TiffFrame.__str__(self, detail)
        attr = ''
        for name in ('memmappable', 'final', 'contiguous'):
            attr = getattr(self, 'is_'+name)
            if attr:
                attr = name.upper()
                break
        info = '  '.join(s.lower() for s in (
            'x'.join(str(i) for i in self.shape),
            '%s%s' % (TIFF.SAMPLEFORMAT(self.sampleformat).name,
                      self.bitspersample),
            ' '.join(i for i in (
                TIFF.PHOTOMETRIC(self.photometric).name,
                'REDUCED' if self.is_reduced else '',
                'MASK' if self.is_mask else '',
                'TILED' if self.is_tiled else '',
                self.compression.name if self.compression != 1 else '',
                self.planarconfig.name if self.planarconfig != 1 else '',
                self.predictor.name if self.predictor != 1 else '',
                self.fillorder.name if self.fillorder != 1 else '',
                ) + tuple(f.upper() for f in self.flags) + (attr,)
                     if i)
            ) if s)
        info = 'TiffPage %i @%i  %s' % (self.index, self.offset, info)
        if detail <= 0:
            return info
        info = [info]
        tags = self.tags
        tlines = []
        vlines = []
        for tag in sorted(tags.values(), key=lambda x: x.code):
            value = tag.__str__(width=width+1)
            tlines.append(value[:width].strip())
            if detail > 1 and len(value) > width:
                name = tag.name.upper()
                if detail <= 2 and ('COUNTS' in name or 'OFFSETS' in name):
                    value = pformat(tag.value, width=width, height=detail*4)
                else:
                    value = pformat(tag.value, width=width, height=detail*12)
                vlines.append('%s\n%s' % (tag.name, value))
        info.append('\n'.join(tlines))
        if detail > 1:
            info.append('\n\n'.join(vlines))
            for name in ('ndpi',):
                name = name + '_tags'
                attr = getattr(self, name, False)
                if attr:
                    info.append('%s\n%s' % (name.upper(), pformat(attr)))
        if detail > 3:
            try:
                info.append('DATA\n%s' % pformat(
                    self.asarray(), width=width, height=detail*8))
            except Exception:
                pass
        return '\n\n'.join(info)

    @lazyattr
    def flags(self):
        """Return set of flags."""
        return set((name.lower() for name in sorted(TIFF.FILE_FLAGS)
                    if getattr(self, 'is_' + name)))

    @property
    def ndim(self):
        """Return number of array dimensions."""
        return len(self.shape)

    @property
    def size(self):
        """Return number of elements in array."""
        return product(self.shape)

    @lazyattr
    def andor_tags(self):
        """Return consolidated metadata from Andor tags as dict.

        Remove Andor tags from self.tags.

        """
        if not self.is_andor:
            return
        tags = self.tags
        result = {'Id': tags['AndorId'].value}
        for tag in list(self.tags.values()):
            code = tag.code
            if not 4864 < code < 5031:
                continue
            value = tag.value
            name = tag.name[5:] if len(tag.name) > 5 else tag.name
            result[name] = value
            del tags[tag.name]
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def epics_tags(self):
        """Return consolidated metadata from EPICS areaDetector tags as dict.

        Remove areaDetector tags from self.tags.

        """
        if not self.is_epics:
            return
        result = {}
        tags = self.tags
        for tag in list(self.tags.values()):
            code = tag.code
            if not 65000 <= code < 65500:
                continue
            value = tag.value
            if code == 65000:
                result['timeStamp'] = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(
                    float(value))
            elif code == 65001:
                result['uniqueID'] = int(value)
            elif code == 65002:
                result['epicsTSSec'] = int(value)
            elif code == 65003:
                result['epicsTSNsec'] = int(value)
            else:
                key, value = value.split(':', 1)
                result[key] = astype(value)
            del tags[tag.name]
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def ndpi_tags(self):
        """Return consolidated metadata from Hamamatsu NDPI as dict."""
        if not self.is_ndpi:
            return
        tags = self.tags
        result = {}
        for name in ('Make', 'Model', 'Software'):
            result[name] = tags[name].value
        for code, name in TIFF.NDPI_TAGS.items():
            code = str(code)
            if code in tags:
                result[name] = tags[code].value
                # del tags[code]
        return result

    @lazyattr
    def geotiff_tags(self):
        """Return consolidated metadata from GeoTIFF tags as dict."""
        if not self.is_geotiff:
            return
        tags = self.tags

        gkd = tags['GeoKeyDirectoryTag'].value
        if gkd[0] != 1:
            warnings.warn('invalid GeoKeyDirectoryTag')
            return {}

        result = {
            'KeyDirectoryVersion': gkd[0],
            'KeyRevision': gkd[1],
            'KeyRevisionMinor': gkd[2],
            # 'NumberOfKeys': gkd[3],
        }
        # deltags = ['GeoKeyDirectoryTag']
        geokeys = TIFF.GEO_KEYS
        geocodes = TIFF.GEO_CODES
        for index in range(gkd[3]):
            keyid, tagid, count, offset = gkd[4 + index * 4: index * 4 + 8]
            keyid = geokeys.get(keyid, keyid)
            if tagid == 0:
                value = offset
            else:
                tagname = TIFF.TAGS[tagid]
                # deltags.append(tagname)
                value = tags[tagname].value[offset: offset + count]
                if tagid == 34737 and count > 1 and value[-1] == '|':
                    value = value[:-1]
                value = value if count > 1 else value[0]
            if keyid in geocodes:
                try:
                    value = geocodes[keyid](value)
                except Exception:
                    pass
            result[keyid] = value

        if 'IntergraphMatrixTag' in tags:
            value = tags['IntergraphMatrixTag'].value
            value = numpy.array(value)
            if len(value) == 16:
                value = value.reshape((4, 4)).tolist()
            result['IntergraphMatrix'] = value
        if 'ModelPixelScaleTag' in tags:
            value = numpy.array(tags['ModelPixelScaleTag'].value).tolist()
            result['ModelPixelScale'] = value
        if 'ModelTiepointTag' in tags:
            value = tags['ModelTiepointTag'].value
            value = numpy.array(value).reshape((-1, 6)).squeeze().tolist()
            result['ModelTiepoint'] = value
        if 'ModelTransformationTag' in tags:
            value = tags['ModelTransformationTag'].value
            value = numpy.array(value).reshape((4, 4)).tolist()
            result['ModelTransformation'] = value
        elif False:
            # if 'ModelPixelScaleTag' in tags and 'ModelTiepointTag' in tags:
            sx, sy, sz = tags['ModelPixelScaleTag'].value
            tiepoints = tags['ModelTiepointTag'].value
            transforms = []
            for tp in range(0, len(tiepoints), 6):
                i, j, k, x, y, z = tiepoints[tp:tp+6]
                transforms.append([
                    [sx,  0.0, 0.0, x - i * sx],
                    [0.0, -sy, 0.0, y + j * sy],
                    [0.0, 0.0,  sz, z - k * sz],
                    [0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0]])
            if len(tiepoints) == 6:
                transforms = transforms[0]
            result['ModelTransformation'] = transforms

        if 'RPCCoefficientTag' in tags:
            rpcc = tags['RPCCoefficientTag'].value
            result['RPCCoefficient'] = {
                'ERR_BIAS': rpcc[0],
                'ERR_RAND': rpcc[1],
                'LINE_OFF': rpcc[2],
                'SAMP_OFF': rpcc[3],
                'LAT_OFF': rpcc[4],
                'LONG_OFF': rpcc[5],
                'HEIGHT_OFF': rpcc[6],
                'LINE_SCALE': rpcc[7],
                'SAMP_SCALE': rpcc[8],
                'LAT_SCALE': rpcc[9],
                'LONG_SCALE': rpcc[10],
                'HEIGHT_SCALE': rpcc[11],
                'LINE_NUM_COEFF': rpcc[12:33],
                'LINE_DEN_COEFF ': rpcc[33:53],
                'SAMP_NUM_COEFF': rpcc[53:73],
                'SAMP_DEN_COEFF': rpcc[73:]}

        return result

    @property
    def is_reduced(self):
        """Page is reduced image of another image."""
        return self.subfiletype & 0b1

    @property
    def is_multipage(self):
        """Page is part of multi-page image."""
        return self.subfiletype & 0b10

    @property
    def is_mask(self):
        """Page is transparency mask for another image."""
        return self.subfiletype & 0b100

    @property
    def is_mrc(self):
        """Page is part of Mixed Raster Content."""
        return self.subfiletype & 0b1000

    @property
    def is_tiled(self):
        """Page contains tiled image."""
        return 'TileWidth' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_chroma_subsampled(self):
        """Page contains chroma subsampled image."""
        return ('YCbCrSubSampling' in self.tags and
                self.tags['YCbCrSubSampling'].value != (1, 1))

    @lazyattr
    def is_imagej(self):
        """Return ImageJ description if exists, else None."""
        for description in (self.description, self.description1):
            if not description:
                return
            if description[:7] == 'ImageJ=':
                return description

    @lazyattr
    def is_shaped(self):
        """Return description containing array shape if exists, else None."""
        for description in (self.description, self.description1):
            if not description:
                return
            if description[:1] == '{' and '"shape":' in description:
                return description
            if description[:6] == 'shape=':
                return description

    @property
    def is_mdgel(self):
        """Page contains MDFileTag tag."""
        return 'MDFileTag' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_mediacy(self):
        """Page contains Media Cybernetics Id tag."""
        return ('MC_Id' in self.tags and
                self.tags['MC_Id'].value[:7] == b'MC TIFF')

    @property
    def is_stk(self):
        """Page contains UIC2Tag tag."""
        return 'UIC2tag' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_lsm(self):
        """Page contains CZ_LSMINFO tag."""
        return 'CZ_LSMINFO' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_fluoview(self):
        """Page contains FluoView MM_STAMP tag."""
        return 'MM_Stamp' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_nih(self):
        """Page contains NIH image header."""
        return 'NIHImageHeader' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_sgi(self):
        """Page contains SGI image and tile depth tags."""
        return 'ImageDepth' in self.tags and 'TileDepth' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_vista(self):
        """Software tag is 'ISS Vista'."""
        return self.software == 'ISS Vista'

    @property
    def is_metaseries(self):
        """Page contains MDS MetaSeries metadata in ImageDescription tag."""
        if self.index > 1 or self.software != 'MetaSeries':
            return False
        d = self.description
        return d.startswith('<MetaData>') and d.endswith('</MetaData>')

    @property
    def is_ome(self):
        """Page contains OME-XML in ImageDescription tag."""
        if self.index > 1 or not self.description:
            return False
        d = self.description
        return d[:14] == '<?xml version=' and d[-6:] == '</OME>'

    @property
    def is_scn(self):
        """Page contains Leica SCN XML in ImageDescription tag."""
        if self.index > 1 or not self.description:
            return False
        d = self.description
        return d[:14] == '<?xml version=' and d[-6:] == '</scn>'

    @property
    def is_micromanager(self):
        """Page contains Micro-Manager metadata."""
        return 'MicroManagerMetadata' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_andor(self):
        """Page contains Andor Technology tags."""
        return 'AndorId' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_pilatus(self):
        """Page contains Pilatus tags."""
        return (self.software[:8] == 'TVX TIFF' and
                self.description[:2] == '# ')

    @property
    def is_epics(self):
        """Page contains EPICS areaDetector tags."""
        return (self.description == 'EPICS areaDetector' or
                self.software == 'EPICS areaDetector')

    @property
    def is_tvips(self):
        """Page contains TVIPS metadata."""
        return 'TVIPS' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_fei(self):
        """Page contains SFEG or HELIOS metadata."""
        return 'FEI_SFEG' in self.tags or 'FEI_HELIOS' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_sem(self):
        """Page contains Zeiss SEM metadata."""
        return 'CZ_SEM' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_svs(self):
        """Page contains Aperio metadata."""
        return self.description[:20] == 'Aperio Image Library'

    @property
    def is_scanimage(self):
        """Page contains ScanImage metadata."""
        return (self.description[:12] == 'state.config' or
                self.software[:22] == 'SI.LINE_FORMAT_VERSION' or
                'scanimage.SI.' in self.description[-256:])

    @property
    def is_qptiff(self):
        """Page contains PerkinElmer tissue images metadata."""
        # The ImageDescription tag contains XML with a top-level
        # <PerkinElmer-QPI-ImageDescription> element
        return self.software[:15] == 'PerkinElmer-QPI'

    @property
    def is_geotiff(self):
        """Page contains GeoTIFF metadata."""
        return 'GeoKeyDirectoryTag' in self.tags

    @property
    def is_sis(self):
        """Page contains Olympus SIS metadata."""
        return 'OlympusSIS' in self.tags or 'OlympusINI' in self.tags

    @lazyattr  # must not be property; tag 65420 is later removed
    def is_ndpi(self):
        """Page contains NDPI metadata."""
        return '65420' in self.tags and 'Make' in self.tags


class TiffFrame(object):
    """Lightweight TIFF image file directory (IFD).

    Only a limited number of tag values are read from file, e.g. StripOffsets,
    and StripByteCounts. Other tag values are assumed to be identical with a
    specified TiffPage instance, the keyframe.

    TiffFrame is intended to reduce resource usage and speed up reading data
    from file, not for introspection of metadata.

    Not compatible with Python 2.

    """
    __slots__ = ('index', 'keyframe', 'parent', 'offset', 'dataoffsets',
                 'databytecounts')

    is_mdgel = False
    tags = {}

    def __init__(self, parent, index, keyframe):
        """Read specified tags from file.

        The file handle position must be at the offset to a valid IFD.

        """
        fh = parent.filehandle
        self.parent = parent
        self.index = index
        self.keyframe = keyframe
        self.dataoffsets = None
        self.databytecounts = None
        self.offset = fh.tell()

        unpack = struct.unpack
        tiff = parent.tiff
        try:
            tagno = unpack(tiff.tagnoformat, fh.read(tiff.tagnosize))[0]
            if tagno > 4096:
                raise ValueError('suspicious number of tags')
        except Exception:
            raise ValueError('corrupted page list at offset %i' % self.offset)

        # tags = {}
        tagcodes = {273, 279, 324, 325}  # TIFF.FRAME_TAGS
        tagoffset = self.offset + tiff.tagnosize  # fh.tell()
        tagsize = tiff.tagsize
        tagindex = -tagsize
        codeformat = tiff.tagformat1[:2]
        tagbytes = fh.read(tagsize * tagno)

        for _ in range(tagno):
            tagindex += tagsize
            code = unpack(codeformat, tagbytes[tagindex:tagindex+2])[0]
            if code not in tagcodes:
                continue
            try:
                tag = TiffTag(parent, tagbytes[tagindex:tagindex+tagsize],
                              tagoffset+tagindex)
            except TiffTag.Error as e:
                warnings.warn(str(e))
                continue
            if code == 273 or code == 324:
                setattr(self, 'dataoffsets', tag.value)
            elif code == 279 or code == 325:
                setattr(self, 'databytecounts', tag.value)
            # elif code == 270:
            #     tagname = tag.name
            #     if tagname not in tags:
            #         tags[tagname] = bytes2str(tag.value)
            #     elif 'ImageDescription1' not in tags:
            #         tags['ImageDescription1'] = bytes2str(tag.value)
            # else:
            #     tags[tag.name] = tag.value

    def aspage(self):
        """Return TiffPage from file."""
        self.parent.filehandle.seek(self.offset)
        return TiffPage(self.parent, index=self.index, keyframe=None)

    def asarray(self, *args, **kwargs):
        """Read image data from file and return as numpy array."""
        # TODO: fix TypeError on Python 2
        #   "TypeError: unbound method asarray() must be called with TiffPage
        #   instance as first argument (got TiffFrame instance instead)"
        kwargs['validate'] = False
        return TiffPage.asarray(self, *args, **kwargs)

    def asrgb(self, *args, **kwargs):
        """Read image data from file and return RGB image as numpy array."""
        kwargs['validate'] = False
        return TiffPage.asrgb(self, *args, **kwargs)

    @property
    def offsets_bytecounts(self):
        """Return simplified offsets and bytecounts."""
        if self.keyframe.is_contiguous:
            return self.dataoffsets[:1], self.keyframe.is_contiguous[1:]
        if self.keyframe.is_tiled:
            return self.dataoffsets, self.databytecounts
        return clean_offsets_counts(self.dataoffsets, self.databytecounts)

    @property
    def is_contiguous(self):
        """Return offset and size of contiguous data, else None."""
        if self.keyframe.is_contiguous:
            return self.dataoffsets[0], self.keyframe.is_contiguous[1]

    @property
    def is_memmappable(self):
        """Return if page's image data in file can be memory-mapped."""
        return self.keyframe.is_memmappable

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        """Return attribute from keyframe."""
        if name in TIFF.FRAME_ATTRS:
            return getattr(self.keyframe, name)
        # this error could be raised because an AttributeError was
        # raised inside a @property function
        raise AttributeError("'%s' object has no attribute '%s'" %
                             (self.__class__.__name__, name))

    def __str__(self, detail=0):
        """Return string containing information about frame."""
        info = '  '.join(s for s in (
            'x'.join(str(i) for i in self.shape),
            str(self.dtype)))
        return 'TiffFrame %i @%i  %s' % (self.index, self.offset, info)


class TiffTag(object):
    """TIFF tag structure.

    Attributes
    ----------
    name : string
        Name of tag.
    code : int
        Decimal code of tag.
    dtype : str
        Datatype of tag data. One of TIFF DATA_FORMATS.
    count : int
        Number of values.
    value : various types
        Tag data as Python object.
    ImageSourceData : int
        Location of value in file.

    All attributes are read-only.

    """
    __slots__ = ('code', 'count', 'dtype', 'value', 'valueoffset')

    class Error(Exception):
        pass

    def __init__(self, parent, tagheader, tagoffset):
        """Initialize instance from tag header."""
        fh = parent.filehandle
        tiff = parent.tiff
        byteorder = tiff.byteorder
        offsetsize = tiff.offsetsize
        unpack = struct.unpack

        self.valueoffset = tagoffset + offsetsize + 4
        code, type_ = unpack(tiff.tagformat1, tagheader[:4])
        count, value = unpack(tiff.tagformat2, tagheader[4:])

        try:
            dtype = TIFF.DATA_FORMATS[type_]
        except KeyError:
            raise TiffTag.Error('unknown tag data type %i' % type_)

        fmt = '%s%i%s' % (byteorder, count * int(dtype[0]), dtype[1])
        size = struct.calcsize(fmt)
        if size > offsetsize or code in TIFF.TAG_READERS:
            self.valueoffset = offset = unpack(tiff.offsetformat, value)[0]
            if offset < 8 or offset > fh.size - size:
                raise TiffTag.Error('invalid tag value offset')
            # if offset % 2:
            #     warnings.warn('tag value does not begin on word boundary')
            fh.seek(offset)
            if code in TIFF.TAG_READERS:
                readfunc = TIFF.TAG_READERS[code]
                value = readfunc(fh, byteorder, dtype, count, offsetsize)
            elif type_ == 7 or (count > 1 and dtype[-1] == 'B'):
                value = read_bytes(fh, byteorder, dtype, count, offsetsize)
            elif code in TIFF.TAGS or dtype[-1] == 's':
                value = unpack(fmt, fh.read(size))
            else:
                value = read_numpy(fh, byteorder, dtype, count, offsetsize)
        elif dtype[-1] == 'B' or type_ == 7:
            value = value[:size]
        else:
            value = unpack(fmt, value[:size])

        process = (code not in TIFF.TAG_READERS and code not in TIFF.TAG_TUPLE
                   and type_ != 7)
        if process and dtype[-1] == 's' and isinstance(value[0], bytes):
            # TIFF ASCII fields can contain multiple strings,
            #   each terminated with a NUL
            value = value[0]
            try:
                value = bytes2str(stripascii(value).strip())
            except UnicodeDecodeError:
                # TODO: this doesn't work on Python 2
                warnings.warn('tag %i: coercing invalid ASCII to bytes' % code)
                dtype = '1B'
        else:
            if code in TIFF.TAG_ENUM:
                t = TIFF.TAG_ENUM[code]
                try:
                    value = tuple(t(v) for v in value)
                except ValueError as e:
                    warnings.warn(str(e))
            if process:
                if len(value) == 1:
                    value = value[0]

        self.code = code
        self.dtype = dtype
        self.count = count
        self.value = value

    @property
    def name(self):
        return TIFF.TAGS.get(self.code, str(self.code))

    def _fix_lsm_bitspersample(self, parent):
        """Correct LSM bitspersample tag.

        Old LSM writers may use a separate region for two 16-bit values,
        although they fit into the tag value element of the tag.

        """
        if self.code == 258 and self.count == 2:
            # TODO: test this case; need example file
            warnings.warn('correcting LSM bitspersample tag')
            value = struct.pack('<HH', *self.value)
            self.valueoffset = struct.unpack('<I', value)[0]
            parent.filehandle.seek(self.valueoffset)
            self.value = struct.unpack('<HH', parent.filehandle.read(4))

    def __str__(self, detail=0, width=79):
        """Return string containing information about tag."""
        height = 1 if detail <= 0 else 8 * detail
        tcode = '%i%s' % (self.count * int(self.dtype[0]), self.dtype[1])
        if self.name == str(self.code):
            codename = self.name
        else:
            codename = '%i %s' % (self.code, self.name)
        line = 'TiffTag %s %s @%i  ' % (codename, tcode,
                                        self.valueoffset)[:width]

        if self.code in TIFF.TAG_ENUM:
            if self.count == 1:
                value = TIFF.TAG_ENUM[self.code](self.value).name
            else:
                value = pformat(tuple(v.name for v in self.value))
        else:
            value = pformat(self.value, width=width, height=height)

        if detail <= 0:
            line += value
            line = line[:width]
        else:
            line += '\n' + value
        return line


class TiffPageSeries(object):
    """Series of TIFF pages with compatible shape and data type.

    Attributes
    ----------
    pages : list of TiffPage
        Sequence of TiffPages in series.
    dtype : numpy.dtype
        Data type (native byte order) of the image array in series.
    shape : tuple
        Dimensions of the image array in series.
    axes : str
        Labels of axes in shape. See TiffPage.axes.
    offset : int or None
        Position of image data in file if memory-mappable, else None.

    """
    def __init__(self, pages, shape, dtype, axes, parent=None, name=None,
                 transform=None, stype=None, truncated=False):
        """Initialize instance."""
        self.index = 0
        self._pages = pages  # might contain only first of contiguous pages
        self.shape = tuple(shape)
        self.axes = ''.join(axes)
        self.dtype = numpy.dtype(dtype)
        self.stype = stype if stype else ''
        self.name = name if name else ''
        self.transform = transform
        if parent:
            self.parent = parent
        elif pages:
            self.parent = pages[0].parent
        else:
            self.parent = None
        if len(pages) == 1 and not truncated:
            self._len = int(product(self.shape) // product(pages[0].shape))
        else:
            self._len = len(pages)

    def asarray(self, out=None):
        """Return image data from series of TIFF pages as numpy array."""
        if self.parent:
            result = self.parent.asarray(series=self, out=out)
            if self.transform is not None:
                result = self.transform(result)
            return result

    @lazyattr
    def offset(self):
        """Return offset to series data in file, if any."""
        if not self._pages:
            return

        pos = 0
        for page in self._pages:
            if page is None:
                return
            if not page.is_final:
                return
            if not pos:
                pos = page.is_contiguous[0] + page.is_contiguous[1]
                continue
            if pos != page.is_contiguous[0]:
                return
            pos += page.is_contiguous[1]

        page = self._pages[0]
        offset = page.is_contiguous[0]
        if (page.is_imagej or page.is_shaped) and len(self._pages) == 1:
            # truncated files
            return offset
        if pos == offset + product(self.shape) * self.dtype.itemsize:
            return offset

    @property
    def ndim(self):
        """Return number of array dimensions."""
        return len(self.shape)

    @property
    def size(self):
        """Return number of elements in array."""
        return int(product(self.shape))

    @property
    def pages(self):
        """Return sequence of all pages in series."""
        # a workaround to keep the old interface working
        return self

    def __len__(self):
        """Return number of TiffPages in series."""
        return self._len

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        """Return specified TiffPage."""
        if len(self._pages) == 1 and 0 < key < self._len:
            index = self._pages[0].index
            return self.parent.pages[index + key]
        return self._pages[key]

    def __iter__(self):
        """Return iterator over TiffPages in series."""
        if len(self._pages) == self._len:
            for page in self._pages:
                yield page
        else:
            pages = self.parent.pages
            index = self._pages[0].index
            for i in range(self._len):
                yield pages[index + i]

    def __str__(self):
        """Return string with information about series."""
        s = '  '.join(s for s in (
            snipstr("'%s'" % self.name, 20) if self.name else '',
            'x'.join(str(i) for i in self.shape),
            str(self.dtype),
            self.axes,
            self.stype,
            '%i Pages' % len(self.pages),
            ('Offset=%i' % self.offset) if self.offset else '') if s)
        return 'TiffPageSeries %i  %s' % (self.index, s)


class TiffSequence(object):
    """Sequence of TIFF files.

    The image data in all files must match shape, dtype, etc.

    Attributes
    ----------
    files : list
        List of file names.
    shape : tuple
        Shape of image sequence. Excludes shape of image array.
    axes : str
        Labels of axes in shape.

    """
    _patterns = {
        'axes': r"""
            # matches Olympus OIF and Leica TIFF series
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            _?(?:(q|l|p|a|c|t|x|y|z|ch|tp)(\d{1,4}))?
            """}

    class ParseError(Exception):
        pass

    def __init__(self, files=None, imread=TiffFile, pattern='axes',
                 container=None, sort=None, *args, **kwargs):
        """Initialize instance from multiple files.

        Parameters
        ----------
        files : str, pathlib.Path, or sequence thereof
            Glob filename pattern or sequence of file names.
            Default is '*.tif'.
            Binary streams are not supported.
        imread : function or class
            Image read function or class with asarray function returning numpy
            array from single file.
        pattern : str
            Regular expression pattern that matches axes names and sequence
            indices in file names.
            By default, the pattern matches Olympus OIF and Leica TIFF series.
        container : str, container instance, or None
            Name or open instance of ZIP file in which files are stored.
        sort : function or None
            Sort function used to sort file names when 'files' is a  pattern.
            The default (None) is natural_sorted.

        """
        if sort is None:
            sort = natural_sorted
        if files is None:
            files = '*.tif'
        self._container = container
        if container:
            import fnmatch  # noqa
            if isinstance(container, basestring):
                import zipfile  # noqa
                self._container = zipfile.ZipFile(container)
            elif not hasattr(self._container, 'open'):
                raise ValueError('invalid container')
            if isinstance(files, basestring):
                files = fnmatch.filter(self._container.namelist(), files)
                if sort:
                    files = sort(files)
        else:
            if isinstance(files, pathlib.Path):
                files = str(files)
            if isinstance(files, basestring):
                files = glob.glob(files)
                if sort:
                    files = sort(files)
            if not files:
                raise ValueError('no files found')

        files = list(files)
        if not files:
            raise ValueError('no files found')
        if isinstance(files[0], pathlib.Path):
            files = [str(pathlib.Path(f)) for f in files]
        elif not isinstance(files[0], basestring):
            raise ValueError('not a file name')
        self.files = files

        if hasattr(imread, 'asarray'):
            # redefine imread to use asarray from class
            _imread0 = imread

            def imread(fname, *args, **kwargs):
                with _imread0(fname) as im:
                    return im.asarray(*args, **kwargs)

        if container:
            # redefine imread to read from container
            _imread1 = imread

            def imread(fname, *args, **kwargs):
                with self._container.open(fname) as fh:
                    with io.BytesIO(fh.read()) as fh2:
                        return _imread1(fh2, *args, **kwargs)

        self.imread = imread

        self.pattern = self._patterns.get(pattern, pattern)
        try:
            self._parse()
            if not self.axes:
                self.axes = 'I'
        except self.ParseError:
            self.axes = 'I'
            self.shape = (len(files),)
            self._startindex = (0,)
            self._indices = tuple((i,) for i in range(len(files)))

    def __str__(self):
        """Return string with information about image sequence."""
        return '\n'.join([
            str(self._container) if self._container else self.files[0],
            ' size: %i' % len(self.files),
            ' axes: %s' % self.axes,
            ' shape: %s' % str(self.shape)])

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.files)

    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
        self.close()

    def close(self):
        if self._container:
            self._container.close()
        self._container = None

    def asarray(self, file=None, out=None, *args, **kwargs):
        """Read image data from files and return as numpy array.

        The args and kwargs parameters are passed to the imread function.

        Raise IndexError or ValueError if image shapes do not match.

        """
        if file is not None:
            if isinstance(file, int):
                return self.imread(self.files[file], *args, **kwargs)
            return self.imread(file, *args, **kwargs)

        im = self.imread(self.files[0], *args, **kwargs)
        shape = self.shape + im.shape
        result = create_output(out, shape, dtype=im.dtype)
        result = result.reshape(-1, *im.shape)
        for index, fname in zip(self._indices, self.files):
            index = [i-j for i, j in zip(index, self._startindex)]
            index = numpy.ravel_multi_index(index, self.shape)
            im = self.imread(fname, *args, **kwargs)
            result[index] = im
        result.shape = shape
        return result

    def _parse(self):
        """Get axes and shape from file names."""
        if not self.pattern:
            raise self.ParseError('invalid pattern')
        pattern = re.compile(self.pattern, re.IGNORECASE | re.VERBOSE)
        matches = pattern.findall(self.files[0])
        if not matches:
            raise self.ParseError('pattern does not match file names')
        matches = matches[-1]
        if len(matches) % 2:
            raise self.ParseError('pattern does not match axis name and index')
        axes = ''.join(m for m in matches[::2] if m)
        if not axes:
            raise self.ParseError('pattern does not match file names')

        indices = []
        for fname in self.files:
            matches = pattern.findall(fname)[-1]
            if axes != ''.join(m for m in matches[::2] if m):
                raise ValueError('axes do not match within the image sequence')
            indices.append([int(m) for m in matches[1::2] if m])
        shape = tuple(numpy.max(indices, axis=0))
        startindex = tuple(numpy.min(indices, axis=0))
        shape = tuple(i-j+1 for i, j in zip(shape, startindex))
        if product(shape) != len(self.files):
            warnings.warn('files are missing. Missing data are zeroed')

        self.axes = axes.upper()
        self.shape = shape
        self._indices = indices
        self._startindex = startindex


class FileHandle(object):
    """Binary file handle.

    A limited, special purpose file handler that can:

    * handle embedded files (for CZI within CZI files)
    * re-open closed files (for multi-file formats, such as OME-TIFF)
    * read and write numpy arrays and records from file like objects

    Only 'rb' and 'wb' modes are supported. Concurrently reading and writing
    of the same stream is untested.

    When initialized from another file handle, do not use it unless this
    FileHandle is closed.

    Attributes
    ----------
    name : str
        Name of the file.
    path : str
        Absolute path to file.
    size : int
        Size of file in bytes.
    is_file : bool
        If True, file has a filno and can be memory-mapped.

    All attributes are read-only.

    """
    __slots__ = ('_fh', '_file', '_mode', '_name', '_dir', '_lock',
                 '_offset', '_size', '_close', 'is_file')

    def __init__(self, file, mode='rb', name=None, offset=None, size=None):
        """Initialize file handle from file name or another file handle.

        Parameters
        ----------
        file : str, pathlib.Path, binary stream, or FileHandle
            File name or seekable binary stream, such as an open file
            or BytesIO.
        mode : str
            File open mode in case 'file' is a file name. Must be 'rb' or 'wb'.
        name : str
            Optional name of file in case 'file' is a binary stream.
        offset : int
            Optional start position of embedded file. By default, this is
            the current file position.
        size : int
            Optional size of embedded file. By default, this is the number
            of bytes from the 'offset' to the end of the file.

        """
        self._file = file
        self._fh = None
        self._mode = mode
        self._name = name
        self._dir = ''
        self._offset = offset
        self._size = size
        self._close = True
        self.is_file = False
        self._lock = NullContext()
        self.open()

    def open(self):
        """Open or re-open file."""
        if self._fh:
            return  # file is open

        if isinstance(self._file, pathlib.Path):
            self._file = str(self._file)
        if isinstance(self._file, basestring):
            # file name
            self._file = os.path.realpath(self._file)
            self._dir, self._name = os.path.split(self._file)
            self._fh = open(self._file, self._mode)
            self._close = True
            if self._offset is None:
                self._offset = 0
        elif isinstance(self._file, FileHandle):
            # FileHandle
            self._fh = self._file._fh
            if self._offset is None:
                self._offset = 0
            self._offset += self._file._offset
            self._close = False
            if not self._name:
                if self._offset:
                    name, ext = os.path.splitext(self._file._name)
                    self._name = '%s@%i%s' % (name, self._offset, ext)
                else:
                    self._name = self._file._name
            if self._mode and self._mode != self._file._mode:
                raise ValueError('FileHandle has wrong mode')
            self._mode = self._file._mode
            self._dir = self._file._dir
        elif hasattr(self._file, 'seek'):
            # binary stream: open file, BytesIO
            try:
                self._file.tell()
            except Exception:
                raise ValueError('binary stream is not seekable')
            self._fh = self._file
            if self._offset is None:
                self._offset = self._file.tell()
            self._close = False
            if not self._name:
                try:
                    self._dir, self._name = os.path.split(self._fh.name)
                except AttributeError:
                    self._name = 'Unnamed binary stream'
            try:
                self._mode = self._fh.mode
            except AttributeError:
                pass
        else:
            raise ValueError('The first parameter must be a file name, '
                             'seekable binary stream, or FileHandle')

        if self._offset:
            self._fh.seek(self._offset)

        if self._size is None:
            pos = self._fh.tell()
            self._fh.seek(self._offset, 2)
            self._size = self._fh.tell()
            self._fh.seek(pos)

        try:
            self._fh.fileno()
            self.is_file = True
        except Exception:
            self.is_file = False

    def read(self, size=-1):
        """Read 'size' bytes from file, or until EOF is reached."""
        if size < 0 and self._offset:
            size = self._size
        return self._fh.read(size)

    def readinto(self, b):
        """Read up to len(b) bytes into b, and return number of bytes read."""
        return self._fh.readinto(b)

    def write(self, bytestring):
        """Write bytestring to file."""
        return self._fh.write(bytestring)

    def flush(self):
        """Flush write buffers if applicable."""
        return self._fh.flush()

    def memmap_array(self, dtype, shape, offset=0, mode='r', order='C'):
        """Return numpy.memmap of data stored in file."""
        if not self.is_file:
            raise ValueError('Cannot memory-map file without fileno')
        return numpy.memmap(self._fh, dtype=dtype, mode=mode,
                            offset=self._offset + offset,
                            shape=shape, order=order)

    def read_array(self, dtype, count=-1, sep='', chunksize=2**25, out=None,
                   native=False):
        """Return numpy array from file.

        Work around numpy issue #2230, "numpy.fromfile does not accept
        StringIO object" https://github.com/numpy/numpy/issues/2230.

        """
        fh = self._fh
        dtype = numpy.dtype(dtype)
        size = self._size if count < 0 else count * dtype.itemsize

        if out is None:
            try:
                result = numpy.fromfile(fh, dtype, count, sep)
            except (IOError, TypeError):
                # ByteIO
                # data = fh.read(size)
                # result = numpy.frombuffer(data, dtype, count).copy()
                result = bytearray(size)
                n = fh.readinto(result)
                if n != size:
                    raise ValueError('failed to read %i bytes' % size)
                result = numpy.frombuffer(result, dtype, count)
            if native and not result.dtype.isnative:
                # swap byte order and dtype without copy
                result.byteswap(True)
                result = result.newbyteorder()
            return result

        # Read data from file in chunks and copy to output array
        shape = out.shape
        size = min(out.nbytes, size)
        out = out.reshape(-1)
        index = 0
        while size > 0:
            data = fh.read(min(chunksize, size))
            datasize = len(data)
            if datasize == 0:
                break
            size -= datasize
            data = numpy.frombuffer(data, dtype)
            out[index:index+data.size] = data
            index += data.size

        if hasattr(out, 'flush'):
            out.flush()
        return out.reshape(shape)

    def read_record(self, dtype, shape=1, byteorder=None):
        """Return numpy record from file."""
        rec = numpy.rec
        try:
            record = rec.fromfile(self._fh, dtype, shape, byteorder=byteorder)
        except Exception:
            dtype = numpy.dtype(dtype)
            if shape is None:
                shape = self._size // dtype.itemsize
            size = product(sequence(shape)) * dtype.itemsize
            data = self._fh.read(size)
            record = rec.fromstring(data, dtype, shape, byteorder=byteorder)
        return record[0] if shape == 1 else record

    def write_empty(self, size):
        """Append size bytes to file. Position must be at end of file."""
        if size < 1:
            return
        self._fh.seek(size-1, 1)
        self._fh.write(b'\x00')

    def write_array(self, data):
        """Write numpy array to binary file."""
        try:
            data.tofile(self._fh)
        except Exception:
            # BytesIO
            self._fh.write(data.tostring())

    def tell(self):
        """Return file's current position."""
        return self._fh.tell() - self._offset

    def seek(self, offset, whence=0):
        """Set file's current position."""
        if self._offset:
            if whence == 0:
                self._fh.seek(self._offset + offset, whence)
                return
            elif whence == 2 and self._size > 0:
                self._fh.seek(self._offset + self._size + offset, 0)
                return
        self._fh.seek(offset, whence)

    def close(self):
        """Close file."""
        if self._close and self._fh:
            self._fh.close()
            self._fh = None

    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
        self.close()

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        """Return attribute from underlying file object."""
        if self._offset:
            warnings.warn(
                "FileHandle: '%s' not implemented for embedded files" % name)
        return getattr(self._fh, name)

    @property
    def name(self):
        return self._name

    @property
    def dirname(self):
        return self._dir

    @property
    def path(self):
        return os.path.join(self._dir, self._name)

    @property
    def size(self):
        return self._size

    @property
    def closed(self):
        return self._fh is None

    @property
    def lock(self):
        return self._lock

    @lock.setter
    def lock(self, value):
        self._lock = threading.RLock() if value else NullContext()


class NullContext(object):
    """Null context manager.

    >>> with NullContext():
    ...     pass

    """
    def __enter__(self):
        return self

    def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
        pass


class OpenFileCache(object):
    """Keep files open."""

    __slots__ = ('files', 'past', 'lock', 'size')

    def __init__(self, size, lock=None):
        """Initialize open file cache."""
        self.past = []  # FIFO of opened files
        self.files = {}  # refcounts of opened files
        self.lock = NullContext() if lock is None else lock
        self.size = int(size)

    def open(self, filehandle):
        """Re-open file if necessary."""
        with self.lock:
            if filehandle in self.files:
                self.files[filehandle] += 1
            elif filehandle.closed:
                filehandle.open()
                self.files[filehandle] = 1
                self.past.append(filehandle)

    def close(self, filehandle):
        """Close openend file if no longer used."""
        with self.lock:
            if filehandle in self.files:
                self.files[filehandle] -= 1
                # trim the file cache
                index = 0
                size = len(self.past)
                while size > self.size and index < size:
                    filehandle = self.past[index]
                    if self.files[filehandle] == 0:
                        filehandle.close()
                        del self.files[filehandle]
                        del self.past[index]
                        size -= 1
                    else:
                        index += 1

    def clear(self):
        """Close all opened files if not in use."""
        with self.lock:
            for filehandle, refcount in list(self.files.items()):
                if refcount == 0:
                    filehandle.close()
                    del self.files[filehandle]
                    del self.past[self.past.index(filehandle)]


class LazyConst(object):
    """Class whose attributes are computed on first access from its methods."""
    def __init__(self, cls):
        self._cls = cls
        self.__doc__ = getattr(cls, '__doc__')

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        func = getattr(self._cls, name)
        if not callable(func):
            return func
        try:
            value = func()
        except TypeError:
            # Python 2 unbound method
            value = func.__func__()
        setattr(self, name, value)
        return value


@LazyConst
class TIFF(object):
    """Namespace for module constants."""

    def CLASSIC_LE():
        class ClassicTiffLe(object):
            version = 42
            byteorder = '<'
            offsetsize = 4
            offsetformat = '<I'
            tagnosize = 2
            tagnoformat = '<H'
            tagsize = 12
            tagformat1 = '<HH'
            tagformat2 = '<I4s'

        return ClassicTiffLe

    def CLASSIC_BE():
        class ClassicTiffBe(object):
            version = 42
            byteorder = '>'
            offsetsize = 4
            offsetformat = '>I'
            tagnosize = 2
            tagnoformat = '>H'
            tagsize = 12
            tagformat1 = '>HH'
            tagformat2 = '>I4s'

        return ClassicTiffBe

    def BIG_LE():
        class BigTiffLe(object):
            version = 43
            byteorder = '<'
            offsetsize = 8
            offsetformat = '<Q'
            tagnosize = 8
            tagnoformat = '<Q'
            tagsize = 20
            tagformat1 = '<HH'
            tagformat2 = '<Q8s'

        return BigTiffLe

    def BIG_BE():
        class BigTiffBe(object):
            version = 43
            byteorder = '>'
            offsetsize = 8
            offsetformat = '>Q'
            tagnosize = 8
            tagnoformat = '>Q'
            tagsize = 20
            tagformat1 = '>HH'
            tagformat2 = '>Q8s'

        return BigTiffBe

    def TAGS():
        # TIFF tag codes and names from TIFF6, TIFF/EP, EXIF, and other specs
        return {
            11: 'ProcessingSoftware',
            254: 'NewSubfileType',
            255: 'SubfileType',
            256: 'ImageWidth',
            257: 'ImageLength',
            258: 'BitsPerSample',
            259: 'Compression',
            262: 'PhotometricInterpretation',
            263: 'Thresholding',
            264: 'CellWidth',
            265: 'CellLength',
            266: 'FillOrder',
            269: 'DocumentName',
            270: 'ImageDescription',
            271: 'Make',
            272: 'Model',
            273: 'StripOffsets',
            274: 'Orientation',
            277: 'SamplesPerPixel',
            278: 'RowsPerStrip',
            279: 'StripByteCounts',
            280: 'MinSampleValue',
            281: 'MaxSampleValue',
            282: 'XResolution',
            283: 'YResolution',
            284: 'PlanarConfiguration',
            285: 'PageName',
            286: 'XPosition',
            287: 'YPosition',
            288: 'FreeOffsets',
            289: 'FreeByteCounts',
            290: 'GrayResponseUnit',
            291: 'GrayResponseCurve',
            292: 'T4Options',
            293: 'T6Options',
            296: 'ResolutionUnit',
            297: 'PageNumber',
            300: 'ColorResponseUnit',
            301: 'TransferFunction',
            305: 'Software',
            306: 'DateTime',
            315: 'Artist',
            316: 'HostComputer',
            317: 'Predictor',
            318: 'WhitePoint',
            319: 'PrimaryChromaticities',
            320: 'ColorMap',
            321: 'HalftoneHints',
            322: 'TileWidth',
            323: 'TileLength',
            324: 'TileOffsets',
            325: 'TileByteCounts',
            326: 'BadFaxLines',
            327: 'CleanFaxData',
            328: 'ConsecutiveBadFaxLines',
            330: 'SubIFDs',
            332: 'InkSet',
            333: 'InkNames',
            334: 'NumberOfInks',
            336: 'DotRange',
            337: 'TargetPrinter',
            338: 'ExtraSamples',
            339: 'SampleFormat',
            340: 'SMinSampleValue',
            341: 'SMaxSampleValue',
            342: 'TransferRange',
            343: 'ClipPath',
            344: 'XClipPathUnits',
            345: 'YClipPathUnits',
            346: 'Indexed',
            347: 'JPEGTables',
            351: 'OPIProxy',
            400: 'GlobalParametersIFD',
            401: 'ProfileType',
            402: 'FaxProfile',
            403: 'CodingMethods',
            404: 'VersionYear',
            405: 'ModeNumber',
            433: 'Decode',
            434: 'DefaultImageColor',
            435: 'T82Options',
            437: 'JPEGTables_',  # 347
            512: 'JPEGProc',
            513: 'JPEGInterchangeFormat',
            514: 'JPEGInterchangeFormatLength',
            515: 'JPEGRestartInterval',
            517: 'JPEGLosslessPredictors',
            518: 'JPEGPointTransforms',
            519: 'JPEGQTables',
            520: 'JPEGDCTables',
            521: 'JPEGACTables',
            529: 'YCbCrCoefficients',
            530: 'YCbCrSubSampling',
            531: 'YCbCrPositioning',
            532: 'ReferenceBlackWhite',
            559: 'StripRowCounts',
            700: 'XMP',  # XMLPacket
            769: 'GDIGamma',  # GDI+
            770: 'ICCProfileDescriptor',  # GDI+
            771: 'SRGBRenderingIntent',  # GDI+
            800: 'ImageTitle',  # GDI+
            999: 'USPTO_Miscellaneous',
            4864: 'AndorId',  # TODO: Andor Technology 4864 - 5030
            4869: 'AndorTemperature',
            4876: 'AndorExposureTime',
            4878: 'AndorKineticCycleTime',
            4879: 'AndorAccumulations',
            4881: 'AndorAcquisitionCycleTime',
            4882: 'AndorReadoutTime',
            4884: 'AndorPhotonCounting',
            4885: 'AndorEmDacLevel',
            4890: 'AndorFrames',
            4896: 'AndorHorizontalFlip',
            4897: 'AndorVerticalFlip',
            4898: 'AndorClockwise',
            4899: 'AndorCounterClockwise',
            4904: 'AndorVerticalClockVoltage',
            4905: 'AndorVerticalShiftSpeed',
            4907: 'AndorPreAmpSetting',
            4908: 'AndorCameraSerial',
            4911: 'AndorActualTemperature',
            4912: 'AndorBaselineClamp',
            4913: 'AndorPrescans',
            4914: 'AndorModel',
            4915: 'AndorChipSizeX',
            4916: 'AndorChipSizeY',
            4944: 'AndorBaselineOffset',
            4966: 'AndorSoftwareVersion',
            18246: 'Rating',
            18247: 'XP_DIP_XML',
            18248: 'StitchInfo',
            18249: 'RatingPercent',
            20481: 'ResolutionXUnit',  # GDI+
            20482: 'ResolutionYUnit',  # GDI+
            20483: 'ResolutionXLengthUnit',  # GDI+
            20484: 'ResolutionYLengthUnit',  # GDI+
            20485: 'PrintFlags',  # GDI+
            20486: 'PrintFlagsVersion',  # GDI+
            20487: 'PrintFlagsCrop',  # GDI+
            20488: 'PrintFlagsBleedWidth',  # GDI+
            20489: 'PrintFlagsBleedWidthScale',  # GDI+
            20490: 'HalftoneLPI',  # GDI+
            20491: 'HalftoneLPIUnit',  # GDI+
            20492: 'HalftoneDegree',  # GDI+
            20493: 'HalftoneShape',  # GDI+
            20494: 'HalftoneMisc',  # GDI+
            20495: 'HalftoneScreen',  # GDI+
            20496: 'JPEGQuality',  # GDI+
            20497: 'GridSize',  # GDI+
            20498: 'ThumbnailFormat',  # GDI+
            20499: 'ThumbnailWidth',  # GDI+
            20500: 'ThumbnailHeight',  # GDI+
            20501: 'ThumbnailColorDepth',  # GDI+
            20502: 'ThumbnailPlanes',  # GDI+
            20503: 'ThumbnailRawBytes',  # GDI+
            20504: 'ThumbnailSize',  # GDI+
            20505: 'ThumbnailCompressedSize',  # GDI+
            20506: 'ColorTransferFunction',  # GDI+
            20507: 'ThumbnailData',
            20512: 'ThumbnailImageWidth',  # GDI+
            20513: 'ThumbnailImageHeight',  # GDI+
            20514: 'ThumbnailBitsPerSample',  # GDI+
            20515: 'ThumbnailCompression',
            20516: 'ThumbnailPhotometricInterp',  # GDI+
            20517: 'ThumbnailImageDescription',  # GDI+
            20518: 'ThumbnailEquipMake',  # GDI+
            20519: 'ThumbnailEquipModel',  # GDI+
            20520: 'ThumbnailStripOffsets',  # GDI+
            20521: 'ThumbnailOrientation',  # GDI+
            20522: 'ThumbnailSamplesPerPixel',  # GDI+
            20523: 'ThumbnailRowsPerStrip',  # GDI+
            20524: 'ThumbnailStripBytesCount',  # GDI+
            20525: 'ThumbnailResolutionX',
            20526: 'ThumbnailResolutionY',
            20527: 'ThumbnailPlanarConfig',  # GDI+
            20528: 'ThumbnailResolutionUnit',
            20529: 'ThumbnailTransferFunction',
            20530: 'ThumbnailSoftwareUsed',  # GDI+
            20531: 'ThumbnailDateTime',  # GDI+
            20532: 'ThumbnailArtist',  # GDI+
            20533: 'ThumbnailWhitePoint',  # GDI+
            20534: 'ThumbnailPrimaryChromaticities',  # GDI+
            20535: 'ThumbnailYCbCrCoefficients',  # GDI+
            20536: 'ThumbnailYCbCrSubsampling',  # GDI+
            20537: 'ThumbnailYCbCrPositioning',
            20538: 'ThumbnailRefBlackWhite',  # GDI+
            20539: 'ThumbnailCopyRight',  # GDI+
            20545: 'InteroperabilityIndex',
            20546: 'InteroperabilityVersion',
            20624: 'LuminanceTable',
            20625: 'ChrominanceTable',
            20736: 'FrameDelay',  # GDI+
            20737: 'LoopCount',  # GDI+
            20738: 'GlobalPalette',  # GDI+
            20739: 'IndexBackground',  # GDI+
            20740: 'IndexTransparent',  # GDI+
            20752: 'PixelUnit',  # GDI+
            20753: 'PixelPerUnitX',  # GDI+
            20754: 'PixelPerUnitY',  # GDI+
            20755: 'PaletteHistogram',  # GDI+
            28672: 'SonyRawFileType',  # Sony ARW
            28722: 'VignettingCorrParams',  # Sony ARW
            28725: 'ChromaticAberrationCorrParams',  # Sony ARW
            28727: 'DistortionCorrParams',  # Sony ARW
            # Private tags >= 32768
            32781: 'ImageID',
            32931: 'WangTag1',
            32932: 'WangAnnotation',
            32933: 'WangTag3',
            32934: 'WangTag4',
            32953: 'ImageReferencePoints',
            32954: 'RegionXformTackPoint',
            32955: 'WarpQuadrilateral',
            32956: 'AffineTransformMat',
            32995: 'Matteing',
            32996: 'DataType',  # use SampleFormat
            32997: 'ImageDepth',
            32998: 'TileDepth',
            33300: 'ImageFullWidth',
            33301: 'ImageFullLength',
            33302: 'TextureFormat',
            33303: 'TextureWrapModes',
            33304: 'FieldOfViewCotangent',
            33305: 'MatrixWorldToScreen',
            33306: 'MatrixWorldToCamera',
            33405: 'Model2',
            33421: 'CFARepeatPatternDim',
            33422: 'CFAPattern',
            33423: 'BatteryLevel',
            33424: 'KodakIFD',
            33434: 'ExposureTime',
            33437: 'FNumber',
            33432: 'Copyright',
            33445: 'MDFileTag',
            33446: 'MDScalePixel',
            33447: 'MDColorTable',
            33448: 'MDLabName',
            33449: 'MDSampleInfo',
            33450: 'MDPrepDate',
            33451: 'MDPrepTime',
            33452: 'MDFileUnits',
            33471: 'OlympusINI',
            33550: 'ModelPixelScaleTag',
            33560: 'OlympusSIS',  # see also 33471 and 34853
            33589: 'AdventScale',
            33590: 'AdventRevision',
            33628: 'UIC1tag',  # Metamorph  Universal Imaging Corp STK
            33629: 'UIC2tag',
            33630: 'UIC3tag',
            33631: 'UIC4tag',
            33723: 'IPTCNAA',
            33858: 'ExtendedTagsOffset',  # DEFF points IFD with private tags
            33918: 'IntergraphPacketData',  # INGRPacketDataTag
            33919: 'IntergraphFlagRegisters',  # INGRFlagRegisters
            33920: 'IntergraphMatrixTag',  # IrasBTransformationMatrix
            33921: 'INGRReserved',
            33922: 'ModelTiepointTag',
            33923: 'LeicaMagic',
            34016: 'Site',  # 34016..34032 ANSI IT8 TIFF/IT
            34017: 'ColorSequence',
            34018: 'IT8Header',
            34019: 'RasterPadding',
            34020: 'BitsPerRunLength',
            34021: 'BitsPerExtendedRunLength',
            34022: 'ColorTable',
            34023: 'ImageColorIndicator',
            34024: 'BackgroundColorIndicator',
            34025: 'ImageColorValue',
            34026: 'BackgroundColorValue',
            34027: 'PixelIntensityRange',
            34028: 'TransparencyIndicator',
            34029: 'ColorCharacterization',
            34030: 'HCUsage',
            34031: 'TrapIndicator',
            34032: 'CMYKEquivalent',
            34118: 'CZ_SEM',  # Zeiss SEM
            34152: 'AFCP_IPTC',
            34232: 'PixelMagicJBIGOptions',  # EXIF, also TI FrameCount
            34263: 'JPLCartoIFD',
            34122: 'IPLAB',  # number of images
            34264: 'ModelTransformationTag',
            34306: 'WB_GRGBLevels',  # Leaf MOS
            34310: 'LeafData',
            34361: 'MM_Header',
            34362: 'MM_Stamp',
            34363: 'MM_Unknown',
            34377: 'ImageResources',  # Photoshop
            34386: 'MM_UserBlock',
            34412: 'CZ_LSMINFO',
            34665: 'ExifTag',
            34675: 'InterColorProfile',  # ICCProfile
            34680: 'FEI_SFEG',  #
            34682: 'FEI_HELIOS',  #
            34683: 'FEI_TITAN',  #
            34687: 'FXExtensions',
            34688: 'MultiProfiles',
            34689: 'SharedData',
            34690: 'T88Options',
            34710: 'MarCCD',  # offset to MarCCD header
            34732: 'ImageLayer',
            34735: 'GeoKeyDirectoryTag',
            34736: 'GeoDoubleParamsTag',
            34737: 'GeoAsciiParamsTag',
            34750: 'JBIGOptions',
            34821: 'PIXTIFF',  # ? Pixel Translations Inc
            34850: 'ExposureProgram',
            34852: 'SpectralSensitivity',
            34853: 'GPSTag',  # GPSIFD  also OlympusSIS2
            34855: 'ISOSpeedRatings',
            34856: 'OECF',
            34857: 'Interlace',
            34858: 'TimeZoneOffset',
            34859: 'SelfTimerMode',
            34864: 'SensitivityType',
            34865: 'StandardOutputSensitivity',
            34866: 'RecommendedExposureIndex',
            34867: 'ISOSpeed',
            34868: 'ISOSpeedLatitudeyyy',
            34869: 'ISOSpeedLatitudezzz',
            34908: 'HylaFAXFaxRecvParams',
            34909: 'HylaFAXFaxSubAddress',
            34910: 'HylaFAXFaxRecvTime',
            34911: 'FaxDcs',
            34929: 'FedexEDR',
            34954: 'LeafSubIFD',
            34959: 'Aphelion1',
            34960: 'Aphelion2',
            34961: 'AphelionInternal',  # ADCIS
            36864: 'ExifVersion',
            36867: 'DateTimeOriginal',
            36868: 'DateTimeDigitized',
            36873: 'GooglePlusUploadCode',
            36880: 'OffsetTime',
            36881: 'OffsetTimeOriginal',
            36882: 'OffsetTimeDigitized',
            # TODO: Pilatus/CHESS/TV6 36864..37120 conflicting with Exif tags
            # 36864: 'TVX ?',
            # 36865: 'TVX_NumExposure',
            # 36866: 'TVX_NumBackground',
            # 36867: 'TVX_ExposureTime',
            # 36868: 'TVX_BackgroundTime',
            # 36870: 'TVX ?',
            # 36873: 'TVX_SubBpp',
            # 36874: 'TVX_SubWide',
            # 36875: 'TVX_SubHigh',
            # 36876: 'TVX_BlackLevel',
            # 36877: 'TVX_DarkCurrent',
            # 36878: 'TVX_ReadNoise',
            # 36879: 'TVX_DarkCurrentNoise',
            # 36880: 'TVX_BeamMonitor',
            # 37120: 'TVX_UserVariables',  # A/D values
            37121: 'ComponentsConfiguration',
            37122: 'CompressedBitsPerPixel',
            37377: 'ShutterSpeedValue',
            37378: 'ApertureValue',
            37379: 'BrightnessValue',
            37380: 'ExposureBiasValue',
            37381: 'MaxApertureValue',
            37382: 'SubjectDistance',
            37383: 'MeteringMode',
            37384: 'LightSource',
            37385: 'Flash',
            37386: 'FocalLength',
            37387: 'FlashEnergy_',  # 37387
            37388: 'SpatialFrequencyResponse_',  # 37388
            37389: 'Noise',
            37390: 'FocalPlaneXResolution',
            37391: 'FocalPlaneYResolution',
            37392: 'FocalPlaneResolutionUnit',
            37393: 'ImageNumber',
            37394: 'SecurityClassification',
            37395: 'ImageHistory',
            37396: 'SubjectLocation',
            37397: 'ExposureIndex',
            37398: 'TIFFEPStandardID',
            37399: 'SensingMethod',
            37434: 'CIP3DataFile',
            37435: 'CIP3Sheet',
            37436: 'CIP3Side',
            37439: 'StoNits',
            37500: 'MakerNote',
            37510: 'UserComment',
            37520: 'SubsecTime',
            37521: 'SubsecTimeOriginal',
            37522: 'SubsecTimeDigitized',
            37679: 'MODIText',  # Microsoft Office Document Imaging
            37680: 'MODIOLEPropertySetStorage',
            37681: 'MODIPositioning',
            37706: 'TVIPS',  # offset to TemData structure
            37707: 'TVIPS1',
            37708: 'TVIPS2',  # same TemData structure as undefined
            37724: 'ImageSourceData',  # Photoshop
            37888: 'Temperature',
            37889: 'Humidity',
            37890: 'Pressure',
            37891: 'WaterDepth',
            37892: 'Acceleration',
            37893: 'CameraElevationAngle',
            40001: 'MC_IpWinScal',  # Media Cybernetics
            # 40001: 'RecipName',  # MS FAX
            40002: 'RecipNumber',
            40003: 'SenderName',
            40004: 'Routing',
            40005: 'CallerId',
            40006: 'TSID',
            40007: 'CSID',
            40008: 'FaxTime',
            40100: 'MC_IdOld',
            40106: 'MC_Unknown',
            40965: 'InteroperabilityTag',  # InteropOffset
            40091: 'XPTitle',
            40092: 'XPComment',
            40093: 'XPAuthor',
            40094: 'XPKeywords',
            40095: 'XPSubject',
            40960: 'FlashpixVersion',
            40961: 'ColorSpace',
            40962: 'PixelXDimension',
            40963: 'PixelYDimension',
            40964: 'RelatedSoundFile',
            40976: 'SamsungRawPointersOffset',
            40977: 'SamsungRawPointersLength',
            41217: 'SamsungRawByteOrder',
            41218: 'SamsungRawUnknown',
            41483: 'FlashEnergy',
            41484: 'SpatialFrequencyResponse',
            41485: 'Noise_',  # 37389
            41486: 'FocalPlaneXResolution_',  # 37390
            41487: 'FocalPlaneYResolution_',  # 37391
            41488: 'FocalPlaneResolutionUnit_',  # 37392
            41489: 'ImageNumber_',  # 37393
            41490: 'SecurityClassification_',  # 37394
            41491: 'ImageHistory_',  # 37395
            41492: 'SubjectLocation_',  # 37395
            41493: 'ExposureIndex_ ',  # 37397
            41494: 'TIFF-EPStandardID',
            41495: 'SensingMethod_',  # 37399
            41728: 'FileSource',
            41729: 'SceneType',
            41730: 'CFAPattern_',  # 33422
            41985: 'CustomRendered',
            41986: 'ExposureMode',
            41987: 'WhiteBalance',
            41988: 'DigitalZoomRatio',
            41989: 'FocalLengthIn35mmFilm',
            41990: 'SceneCaptureType',
            41991: 'GainControl',
            41992: 'Contrast',
            41993: 'Saturation',
            41994: 'Sharpness',
            41995: 'DeviceSettingDescription',
            41996: 'SubjectDistanceRange',
            42016: 'ImageUniqueID',
            42032: 'CameraOwnerName',
            42033: 'BodySerialNumber',
            42034: 'LensSpecification',
            42035: 'LensMake',
            42036: 'LensModel',
            42037: 'LensSerialNumber',
            42112: 'GDAL_METADATA',
            42113: 'GDAL_NODATA',
            42240: 'Gamma',
            43314: 'NIHImageHeader',
            44992: 'ExpandSoftware',
            44993: 'ExpandLens',
            44994: 'ExpandFilm',
            44995: 'ExpandFilterLens',
            44996: 'ExpandScanner',
            44997: 'ExpandFlashLamp',
            48129: 'PixelFormat',  # HDP and WDP
            48130: 'Transformation',
            48131: 'Uncompressed',
            48132: 'ImageType',
            48256: 'ImageWidth_',  # 256
            48257: 'ImageHeight_',
            48258: 'WidthResolution',
            48259: 'HeightResolution',
            48320: 'ImageOffset',
            48321: 'ImageByteCount',
            48322: 'AlphaOffset',
            48323: 'AlphaByteCount',
            48324: 'ImageDataDiscard',
            48325: 'AlphaDataDiscard',
            50003: 'KodakAPP3',
            50215: 'OceScanjobDescription',
            50216: 'OceApplicationSelector',
            50217: 'OceIdentificationNumber',
            50218: 'OceImageLogicCharacteristics',
            50255: 'Annotations',
            50288: 'MC_Id',  # Media Cybernetics
            50289: 'MC_XYPosition',
            50290: 'MC_ZPosition',
            50291: 'MC_XYCalibration',
            50292: 'MC_LensCharacteristics',
            50293: 'MC_ChannelName',
            50294: 'MC_ExcitationWavelength',
            50295: 'MC_TimeStamp',
            50296: 'MC_FrameProperties',
            50341: 'PrintImageMatching',
            50495: 'PCO_RAW',  # TODO: PCO CamWare
            50547: 'OriginalFileName',
            50560: 'USPTO_OriginalContentType',  # US Patent Office
            50561: 'USPTO_RotationCode',
            50648: 'CR2Unknown1',
            50649: 'CR2Unknown2',
            50656: 'CR2CFAPattern',
            50706: 'DNGVersion',  # DNG 50706 .. 51112
            50707: 'DNGBackwardVersion',
            50708: 'UniqueCameraModel',
            50709: 'LocalizedCameraModel',
            50710: 'CFAPlaneColor',
            50711: 'CFALayout',
            50712: 'LinearizationTable',
            50713: 'BlackLevelRepeatDim',
            50714: 'BlackLevel',
            50715: 'BlackLevelDeltaH',
            50716: 'BlackLevelDeltaV',
            50717: 'WhiteLevel',
            50718: 'DefaultScale',
            50719: 'DefaultCropOrigin',
            50720: 'DefaultCropSize',
            50721: 'ColorMatrix1',
            50722: 'ColorMatrix2',
            50723: 'CameraCalibration1',
            50724: 'CameraCalibration2',
            50725: 'ReductionMatrix1',
            50726: 'ReductionMatrix2',
            50727: 'AnalogBalance',
            50728: 'AsShotNeutral',
            50729: 'AsShotWhiteXY',
            50730: 'BaselineExposure',
            50731: 'BaselineNoise',
            50732: 'BaselineSharpness',
            50733: 'BayerGreenSplit',
            50734: 'LinearResponseLimit',
            50735: 'CameraSerialNumber',
            50736: 'LensInfo',
            50737: 'ChromaBlurRadius',
            50738: 'AntiAliasStrength',
            50739: 'ShadowScale',
            50740: 'DNGPrivateData',
            50741: 'MakerNoteSafety',
            50752: 'RawImageSegmentation',
            50778: 'CalibrationIlluminant1',
            50779: 'CalibrationIlluminant2',
            50780: 'BestQualityScale',
            50781: